Academic Journal of Business, Administration, Law and Social Sciences

International Institute For Private Commercial And Competition Law (IIPCCL)
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Latest documents

  • Real Exchange Rate and Foreign Trade Relationship: The Case of Hungary

    Hungary's foreign trade has scored progress in recent years. The result of this progress has brought a positive eff ect on the country's trade defi cit. This situation also raised the question of whether foreign trade is aff ected by exchange rates. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the factors aff ecting the real exchange rate in Hungary from 1995 to 2020. In this study, the Granger causality analysis is used to measure the eff ects of macroeconomic factors on the real exchange rate. This study considers macroeconomic factors like exports and imports. Data of the study have been collected from the World Bank. The results show that there is a signifi cant and positive eff ect of exports on real exchange rate. Also, there is a bidirectional causality relationship from exports to imports. Keywords: real exchange rate, exports and imports

  • Basic concepts of quality and standards

    The basic principle that products and services must meet the basic requirements of users, led to the realization that the specifi cations that defi ne the product does not guarantee that the product will really achieve the required quality. The comparison between revenues and expenditures is the main form of business accounting and provides evidence of profi tability. The business owner or manager can not have a full understanding of the basic information needed to conduct successful corporate operations without proper use of statistics. Before you start with a new business (start-up) you should prepare a feasibility study and business plan for banks and potential investors in order to secure funding. Statistical methods and techniques are scientifi cally based methods and more important in sett ing the scientifi c and working hypothesis in planning and experimental research (computer simulation), processing and presentation of the obtained data and making statistical conclusion from this research. Keywords: Basic concepts, quality, standards

  • Development of Administrative Capacity and Regional Policy EU funds for touristic sector in post crisis

    This paper research provides an overview of European Structural and Investment Funds and Cohesion Policy in light of current trends in public investment. It highlights the importance of quality governance practices and administrative capacity in optimising public investment, and underscores the importance of strong administrative capacity among Managing Authorities in order to boost the eff ectiveness of European Structural and Investment Funds investment. It concludes with a description of the OECD diagnostic framework developed to support administrative capacity building in the context of managing EU funds under Cohesion Policy. Albania, one of the smallest countries in Eastern Europe, has experienced a period of transition marked by sharp economic swings and periods of civil strife. The early phases of decentralization witnessed the transfer of political autonomy, limited administrative and fi scal authority to local governments, inadequate legislation outlining central/local responsibilities, scarce fi nancial resources and developing ITC projects to mange touristic services. In January 2006, the government promulgated a national Strategy for the Decentralization and the Local Autonomy which included laws to strengthen the autonomy of local governments and increase their capacity to manage local infrastructure and services. The Albania Government has in its focus issues related to tourism. Keywords: Socio-demographic, Big push theory, Internet use, Touristic models, Decision making, SWOT analyse, EU Regional Policy, EU Structural Funds

  • Travel agencies - Touristic activities

    The aim of this paper is for the touristic features to be looked as economic activities. We always have to consider that tourism as an activity has its eff ect on the consumer. Every time the tourist consumes products and services from diff erent countries in many activities from which many economic activities are connected which are in service of tourism and touristic consumption. Tourism itself is an economic activity from which with its specifi cs aff ects in production activities. We always have to be clear on its heterogeneity that aff ects the social product and in the creation of social income, respectively the rise of its production. This is the clearest representation that guides us to access the study of tourism from the economic aspect seeing the role and its importance for the development of society in today's time. Keywords: Tourism, activities, Travel Agency, Organization, Ministry of Industry and Trading

  • Examining corporate social responsibility of multinational corporations: The validity of international guidelines

    This paper will begin with a discussion of the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility, what it entails and the inapplication of the concept to cross-border issues. Secondly, the discussion will lead into an analysis of Multinational Corporate Entities, focusing on ways in which the parent company can be held liable in the courts of the home state. The Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) concept presents not only a picture of theories but also a number of approaches, which are disputable, vague, complex and ambiguous. This article critically analysis the concept of CSR in relation to the liability of Multinational Corporate Entities. By examining the main CSR hypothesis and related approaches under four pillars:(a) are corporations only interested in wealth creation (b) are there enforceable laws or guidelines under OECD and International Law as to establish liability of corporations(c) can Multinational Corporate Entities be held criminally liable (d) moral theories, based on ethical responsibilities of corporations to society. Multinational Corporate Entities operate in what has been described as "a vacuum between ineff ective national laws and non-existent or unenforceable international laws". (Corporate Social Responsibility Human Rights and the Law, Amao Olufemi,2011) Under International Law the MCEs are narrowly recognized and usually not directly bound by International Law. The eff ort as to the way MNEs operate with regard to Corporate Social Responsibility have resulted in soft laws and/or self-regulation. Moreover, it is imperative to address the role of MNEs in developing countries in relation to the pivotal impact in their economies. The need for such economic injections has overlooked the necessary steps that such corporations are required under soft laws or international guidelines to follow. Governments should not believe that they are helping businesses by failing to provide adequate directions or instructions as to human rights impact of corporate activities. All states have a legal obligation to protect human rights. As the concept of CSR has been evolving so has the criticism. It is from an economic perspective that CSR has been criticized for being vague in its aims set for itself and alienating Foreign Direct Investment from developing countries which economies greatly rely on as to the quality of life for their citizens. While from a legal dimension of CSR considers the concept as a means of accommodating legal changes to accomplish CSR objectives. Keywords: Corporate, Social, Responsibility, Entities

  • The Impact of Leadership Styles on Motivating Corporate Employees in Kosovo

    Leadership is the most important factor in business development, refers to the perceptions and expectations of group members in achieving the objectives of any private or public organization, organizational culture aff ects leadership as much as leadership aff ects organizational culture. In this regard, this study tries to refl ect the impact of leadership styles on the motivation of corporate employees in Kosovo. This study att empts to analyze the perception of corporate employees about motivation being infl uenced by leadership styles, in relation to motivation factors and how it relates to leadership styles. The study is based on four leadership styles, which refl ect their eff ect on the motivation of corporate employees in Kosovo. The research data collection is primary, conducted through a structured questionnaire, with a sample size of 391 respondents. The research results are based on the highly variable linear econometric model, and based on the research results the 4 leadership styles Classical leadership, Transactional leadership, Visionary leadership, and Organic leadership have had a positive impact on the motivation of corporate employees in Kosovo. Keywords: Leadership styles, Motivation, Corporate, Kosovo

  • The sanitation of autochthonous grapevine cultivars (Kallmet and Vlosh) from viral infections using in vitro techniques

    The use of the "pure" plant material constitutes a necessity for development of the contemporary horticulture, determined by the phytosanitary normative. We studied some autochthonous grapevine cultivars (Vlosh and Kallmet) in order to evaluate the phytosanitation state diagnosed with the serological method of DAS-ELISA for the presence of viruses such as: GFLV, GFcV, GLRaV-1, GLRaV-3. The results of the serological testing the cultivars resulted infected with the virus GLRaV-3 (Grapevine leafroll-associated virus). In order to improve the grapevine cultivars from the viral infection we applied the in vitro technique: In vitro meristem tip culture and in vitro heat therapy, by going through all its phases such as inoculation, propagation, rooting, and in vivo acclimatization. For each of the studies cultivar were isolated 30 meristem tips 0,4-0,6 mm in size which were excised from young 4 -5 cm long shoots of infected plants from the apical stems and aft er 40 days in the vegetative room we received 18 explants Vlosh and 14 explants Kallmet. Infected plants were put in a growth chamber at 38°C, with a 16 h photoperiod (5000 lux). The new plants were put in the in vitro thermotherapy chamber; the Vlosh plants stayed there for 3 months and Kallmet plants 4 months in temperature 38ºC in therapeutic treatment. Aft er the adoption in vivo acclimatization these plants underwent the sanitation evaluation which proved the phytosanitation purity of the cultivars 3/5 Vlosh grapevine and 2/3 Kallmet grapevine. Keywords: meristematic culture, the sanitized in vitro, thermotherapy in vitro. grapevine leafrollassociated virus, Kallmet, Vlosh

  • The right to Defense Counsel and its implementation according to the Criminal Procedure Code of Kosovo

    This paper aims to address the normative aspect of determining the right to defense counsel and the importance of this right in practice as a guarantee for a fair trial under the Criminal Procedure Code of Kosovo. This paper will address two dimensions. In the fi rst dimension, the researcher will address the meaning and importance of the right to defense counsel, including the analysis of the right to mandatory defense and the right to defense counsel at public expense, and the refl ection that this right has in the implementation of criminal procedural principles regarding with the position of the defendant as an equal party. The second dimension will address the implementation of the right to defense counselby judicial bodies by analyzing the powers of the defense counsel at each stage of criminal proceedings, in order to guarantee a fair criminal trial. Keywords: defense counsel, fair trial, defendant, Criminal Procedure Code of Kosovo (CPCK)

  • Vertical jump to female & male volleyball players in Albania

    Aims: The reason of this study is the evaluation of the "Vertical Jump" and other parameters of the Albanian National Championship volleyball players female & male. The performance profi ling of volleyball players is important to distinguish the anthropometric and physicalcharacteristics from other sports. Methods: Volleyball players were tested in diff erent periods before and aft er the training with their coaches. Subjects were 10 Female (F) mean age 19.1 years old and 10 Male (M) mean age 19.8 years old. They evaluated us; Body Height (BH), Body Mass (BMI %), Body Weight (BW), Squat Jump(SJ), Countermovement Jump(CMJ) and Drop Jump 40cm (DJ). Result: Diff erences were seen to individual volleyball players between two periods, before and aft er the testing. From the obtained data of the test was observed even the eff ect of the training that these athletes have done for the jumping level, assessment of explosive strength and maximum power. Conclusions: The obtained results suggest changes in sporting performance of "vertical jump" in the force sett ings, speed and power. The evaluation of these tests is one of the key features of a vertical jump as one of the specifi c technical element in the game on air in the sport of volleyball. Keywords: volleyball, drop jump, female & male, squat-countermovement jump

  • Grounds for sett ing aside award under Kosovo Arbitration Law in comparative perspective

    This paper is concerned with the grounds for sett ing aside award according to Kosovo Arbitration Law (hereinaft er: KAL) comparing with UNCITRAL Model Law (hereinaft er: Model Law). In particular, this paper will review only the grounds for sett ing aside award under the KAL that diff er in relation to the Model Law. Further, the paper will assess, analyze and interpret KAL provisions of article 36 and compare with article 34 of the Model Law. Furthermore, the KAL provisions will be comparing with the legislations of the Model Law countries and non- Model Law countries with respect to the grounds for sett ing aside award. The purpose of this study is to explain, examine, analyze, interpret and compare provisions that stipulate grounds for sett ing aside award according to KAL and identify existing diff erence in the KAL with Model Law. The diff erences between article 36 of the KAL and article 34 of the Model Law reads as follow: a) Title of article 36 of the KAL; b) Obligation of Court; c) Excess by arbitrator of his authority; d) Defects in both composition of arbitral tribunal and arbitral procedure; e) Arbitrability; f) Time limitations for sett ing aside award; g) Remission procedure; It can be concluded that grounds for sett ing aside award according to Kosovo Arbitration Law are partially compliant to the grounds for sett ing aside award based on the Model Law. Keywords: arbitration, grounds for sett ing aside award, diff erence, Kosovo Arbitration Law, UNCITRAL Model Law

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    In addition to the various economic policies that governments use to achieve economic objectives and increase social welfare, public debt as a source of fi nancing of the state budget is also used by governments of diff erent countries. However, other macroeconomic indicators have a tremendous role ...

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