AuthorDirectorate-General for Migration and Home Affairs (European Commission)
Print ISBN 978- 92-76-21349-9 doi:10 .28 37/98 239 DR-02-20-6 04-EN-C
PDF ISB N 978- 92-76-213 48-2 doi:10.2837/3428 DR-02-20-60 4-EN-N
The information an d views set out in this study are th ose of the author(s) and do not necessa rily reflect the official
opinion of the Commission . The Commission does not gu arantee the accur acy of the data inclu ded in this study.
Neither the Commissio n nor any person acti ng on the Commission’s behalf may be held res ponsible for the use
which may be made of the infor mation contained t herein.
The contrac t for the report wa s held by the Violence and Society Cent re, City, University of London, UK . The team
that researche d and authored the repor t was: Sylvia Walby, Patricia Bell, Janet Bowstead, Ge ne Feder, Abigail Fraser,
Annie Herber t, Stuart Kirby, Sally Mc Manus, Stephen Morris , Sian Oram, Jessica Phoeni x, Merili Pullerits, a nd
Rachel Verrall.
The authors t hank the European Commission , in particular Myria Vassiliadou ; the National Rapporteur s and equiva-
lent mechanisms for providin g information about their respec tive Member States; the EU agencies a nd civil society
organisations for their con tributions.
The study was p repared under Service Contrac t HOME/2018/ISFP/PR /THB/000 0 Lot 2 between City, University of
London and th e European Commission.
Manuscript completed in September 2020
The Europea n Commission is not liable for any conseq uence stemming from the reu se of this publication.
Luxembourg : Publications Of‌f‌ice of the E uropean Union, 2020
© European Unio n, 2020
The reuse poli cy of European Co mmission documen ts is implemente d based on Commissio n Decision 2011/833/E U of 12
December 2011 on the re use of Commission documents (OJ L 33 0, 14.12.2011, p. 39).
Except other wise noted, the reuse of t his document is author ised under a Creative Commo ns Attribution 4.0 In ternational (CC-
BY 4.0) licence (ht tps://creativecommons .org/licens es/by/4.0/) . This means that reu se is allowed provided a ppropriate cr edit
is given and any ch anges are indicated.
For any use or repro duction of element s that are not owned by the E uropean Union, permis sion may need to be sought dire ctly
from the respe ctive rightholders . The European Union does no t own the copyright in relatio n to the following elements:
Cover © iStockPhoto/AndreyKrav

To continue reading

Request your trial

VLEX uses login cookies to provide you with a better browsing experience. If you click on 'Accept' or continue browsing this site we consider that you accept our cookie policy. ACCEPT