Albania's institutional war against organized crime and terrorism

AuthorArben Shehu
PositionUniversity of Tirana Albania
Vol. 5 No.2
September, 2019
Balkan Journal of Interdisciplinary Research
IIPCCL Publishing, Graz-Austria
ISSN 2410-759X
Acces online at
Albania's institutional war against organized crime and terrorism
Arben Shehu
University of Tirana Albania
Organized crime groups continue to bene t from Albania's location as a transit country, which
is a ected by the tra cking of heroin from Asia to the Balkans to Western European countries.
Drug tra ckers, according to international reports, appear to be taking an increasing role in
the nancing and distribution of heroin outside Albania, especially in the northern Balkans
and Western Europe.
Despite this reality, Albania has implemented a number of appropriate policies and strategies
in recent years, which have also been praised by international reports. As every state Albania
also in its entirety needs development, fair trade, promotion of citizen's rights and freedoms,
so it needs rules.There is a need for an economy free from tra cking and lawlessness, for
territories rich in legitimate social relations and for the bene t of the community.
It is clear from that the institutional authorities should consider the way in which these
organizations operate in order to combat but above all prevent the development of these
activities. No commitment, even huge nancial resources will not produce positive e ects if
the state and public institutions in general will not be able and will not act in such a way as to
convey the public trust necessary for the free and orderly development of social life. This is
a challenge for the state to win, because it must be able to win, but also because the younger
generation is looking forward to living in a be er world.
Keywords: organized, crime, terrorism, institutions.
Organized crime
The term "organized crime" has been widely used since the beginning of the last
century to known criminal groups in the 30s and 40s, Al Capone et al. However, there
have always been other examples of criminal groups operating in a new, organized
and relatively disciplined structure. Originally, this term was used by a small circle,
but was later conceived as a designation for larger criminal organizations.
The oldest multinational concept of organized crime (1998) formally de ned in
a document that has the power of international law is the de nition of criminal
organization in Joint Action adopted at EU level1:
"A criminal organization means a structured association, created for a given period of
time, with the participation of three or more persons, acting in a coordinated manner,
with the purpose of commi ing criminal o enses punishable by deprivation of liberty
or an order isolation, for at least 4 years, or with an even more severe punishment,
when these o enses constitute an end in themselves, or a means of achieving material
gain, or, where appropriate, of unduly in uencing, operating public authorities.”
Council of Europe - in its Recommendation Rec (2001) 11, dated 19. 09. 2001, adopted
1 Quoted in Council of Europe Report on the Situation of Organized Crime and Economic Crime in Southeast
Europe, Strasbourg, August 2006, Albanian version, p. 11.

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