Annex 6: Convergence Analysis Results

AuthorDirectorate-General for Justice and Consumers (European Commission), ICF
Legal gender recognition in the EU: the journeys of trans people towards full equality
June 2020
The report uses statistical analysis to consider the degree to wh ich the overall position
of trans people appears to h ave improved in society between 2012 and 2019. It also
explores the extent to which EU Memb er States and the UK are converging i.e.
becoming more similar in their situation.
1 Convergence analysis across Member States
This section uses ‘convergence analysis’ to assess:
whether there h as been improvement in trans peopl e’s average socio-economic
position at the EU and Member State levels (measured as discrimination levels in
different areas)
the degree to which Member States have converged towards the EU average.
This analysis is undertaken using ten selected indicators from the FRA LGBTI and
Eurobarometer surveys. The analysis focuses on ten indicators of experience and
perceptions of discrimination against trans people in employment, education, healthcare
and social services, housing, and using document of identification. The selection of
indicators was based on two main considerations: 1) the in dicators’ importance for
understanding the socio-economic position of trans people in the EU, and 2) the
comparability of survey questions across the 2012 and 2019 waves of the FRA LGBTI
survey and the 2012 and 2019 Eurobarometer surveys on discrimina tion.
To measure conve rgence we take th e coefficient of variation a wid ely used measure
of convergence f or each of the ten indicators. The coefficient of variation is the ratio
of the standard deviation of the indicator (how far from each other the values are
spread) and the aver age value of the indicator. The lower the ratio, th e more
convergence there is. We calculate the coefficient of variation for each indicator for each
year for which data is available 2012, 2015 (only for Eurobarometer data) and 2019
and check whether the coefficient has increased or decreased. If it has decreased,
there is convergence among the Member States. For indicators based on the FRA survey
data there are two available years, 2012 and 2019. For indicators bas ed on
Eurobarometer survey data there are three avai lable years, 2012, 2015 and 2019. The
Table below shows how the direction of change of the indicator and the convergence
measure have been judged.
Table 17. Convergence analysis approach
Direction of change in
discrimination measure
Result of convergence measure
No change
Increase in EU average but not in all
Weak upward
Weak even
Increase in all countries
Even progress
No change in EU average but change in
some countries
Static / no
No change in all countries

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