AuthorEuropean Union Publications Office, 2006

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Annex I: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Portfolios

I-1 Targets and quality criteria for different mileposts along the R&D road BOL: beginning of life, (SRA document, European Commission)


I-2 Deployment Status for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells applications by 2020 (Deployment Strategy document, European Commission)


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I-3 The Priority Areas for Research in the field of hydrogen in the US

The Priority Areas for Research in the field of hydrogen in the US are:

Hydrogen Production and Delivery Techniques

The focus is on producing hydrogen from diverse domestic resources such as renewables (solar, biomass and wind) and domestic feedstocks such as distributed natural gas. Cost-competitive, safe and efficient hydrogen delivery technologies are also being researched. Technology areas include fuel-flexible reformers (natural gas/renewable liquids), catalysis, membranes for separations, purifiers, electrolysers, and high-efficiency compressors.

Hydrogen Storage Technologies

The focus is on developing lightweight, low-cost and efficient on-board vehicular hydrogen storage systems to achieve a driving range of greater than 300 miles, without impacting vehicular cargo or passenger space. The collaborative research is focused on three key areas:

* Metal hydrides

* Carbon-based materials

* Chemical hydrogen storage.

There is also some research in the field of new materials and concepts, as well as offboard storage and analyses of system performance, cost and life cycle efficiency.

Safety Codes and Standards

Determining flammability and reactive and dispersion properties of hydrogen under various conditions to develop safety codes and standards.

Infrastructure Validation, Education and System Analysis

Infrastructure validation involves research on ensuring that hydrogen infrastructure and fuel cell technologies meet real world operating conditions. Factors such as hydrogen cost, production and delivery, energy efficiency and overall infrastructure performance and safety are being validated. "Education" research includes developing an education campaign that communicates the benefits of alternative energy, including hydrogen. System analysis helps to identify the impacts of various hydrogen technology pathways, assess associated cost elements and drivers, identify key costs and technological gaps, evaluate the significance of actual research results, and assist in the prioritisation of research and development directions.

I-4 Priority Areas For Research In The Field Of Fuel Cells In the US

The priority areas for research in the field of fuel cells in the US are:

Transportation Fuel Cell Systems

US DoE's fuel cell systems research on transportation fuel cells is focused on:

* Compressor/expander technologies - improving turbo-compressor and blower designs, developing hybrid compressor/expander modules, and reducing subsystem costs.

* Thermal and water management technologies - developing more efficient heat recovery systems and improved system designs to use fuel cell waste heat and water to minimise the overall system size without compromising overall system efficiency.

* Physical and chemical sensors - to detect hydrogen leaks and monitor hydrogen purity.

* Systems analysis - for sound understanding of fuel cell systems and markets for both transportation and stationary applications.

The DOE's programme is also sponsoring the development of auxiliary power units (APUs) that run on reformate fuels for use on commercial trucks.

Distributed/Stationary Systems

The research involves developing distributed energy systems with durability of over 40 000 hours and a cold start-up time of less than 1 minute, developing power systems for backup or peak shaving applications and developing high-temperature membranes for distributed generation applications.

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Subsystems and Components

Research to decrease the size and improve the start-up time of onboard fuel processors, and improve reformer performance at start-up (DoE has a target of 30 seconds from start-up to full power for these systems) are the two key areas of research. Advance fuel cell stack components, high-activity catalysts and multi-fuel reformers are other areas of development.

Technical Objectives139 in the field of fuel cells in the US include:

* By 2010, develop a 60% peak-efficient, durable, direct hydrogen fuel cell power system for transportation at a cost of euros 37.8/kW; by 2015, a cost of euros 25.2/kW.

* By 2010, develop a distributed generation PEM fuel cell system operating on natural gas or LPG that achieves 40% electrical efficiency and 40 000 hours durability at euros 336-euros 630/kW.

* By 2010, develop a fuel cell system for consumer electronics with (

* By 2010, develop a fuel cell system for auxiliary power units (3-30 kW) with a specific power of 100 W/kg and a power density of 100 W/L.

I-5 FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership

In the US, the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership140 is a collaborative effort between the DoE, energy companies - BP America, Chevron Corporation, Conoco Phillips, ExxonMobil and Shell Hydrogen (US), and the US Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) partners: Daimler- Chrysler, Ford Motor Company, and General Motors Corporation).

The aim of the partnership is to:

* Jointly conduct technology road mapping

* Determine technical requirements

* Suggest research and development (R&D) priorities

* Monitor R&D activities

The key technical goals of the partnership (for 2010 and 2015 timeframes) are:

* To ensure reliable systems for future fuel cell powertrains with costs comparable to conventional internal combustion engine/automatic transmission systems. The goals are:

> An electric propulsion system with a 15-year life capable of delivering at least 55 kilowatts (kW) for 18 seconds, and 30 kW continuous at a system cost of euros 10.1/kW peak.

> A 60% peak energy-efficient, durable fuel cell power system (including hydrogen storage) that achieves a 325 watts per kilogram (W/kg) power density and 220 watts per litre (W/L) operating on hydrogen. Cost targets are euros 37.8/kW by 2010 (euros 25.2/kW by 2015).

* To enable clean, energy-efficient vehicles operating on clean, hydrocarbon-based fuels powered by either internal-combustion powertrains or fuel cells, the goals are:

> Internal combustion engine powertrain systems costing euros 25.2/kW, having a peak brake engine efficiency of 45% and meeting or exceeding emissions standards.

> Fuel cell systems, including a fuel reformer, having a peak brake engine efficiency of 45%, and meeting or exceeding emissions standards with a cost target of euros 37.8/kW by 2010 and euros 25.2/kW in 2015.

* To enable reliable hybrid electric vehicles that are durable and affordable, the goal is:

> Electric drive train energy storage with 15-year life at 300 Whr per vehicle with discharge power of 25 kW for 18 seconds and a cost target of euros 16.8/kW.

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* To enable the transition to a hydrogen economy, ensure widespread availability of hydrogen fuels, and retain the functional characteristics of current vehicles, the goals are:

> Demonstrated hydrogen refuelling with developed commercial codes and standards and diverse renewable and non-renewable energy sources. Targets: 70% energy efficiency well-to-pump; cost of energy from hydrogen equivalent to gasoline at market price assumed to be euros 1.3 per gallon.

> Onboard hydrogen storage systems demonstrating specific energy of 2.0 kWh/kg (6 weight percent hydrogen), and energy density of 1.5 kWh/litre at a cost of euros 3.4/kWh by 2010 and specific energy of 3.0 kWh/kg (9 weight percent hydrogen), 2.7 kWh/litre, and euros 1.7/kWh by 2015.

> Internal combustion engine powertrain systems operating on hydrogen with a cost target of euros 37.8/kW by 2010 and euros 25.2/kW in 2015, having a peak brake engine efficiency of 45%, and meeting or exceeding emissions standards.

To enable lightweight vehicle structures and systems, the goal is:

* Material and manufacturing technologies for high-volume production vehicles that enable or support the simultaneous attainment of:

> 50% reduction in weight of vehicle structure and subsystems

> Affordability

> Increased use of recyclable/renewable materials.

I-6 Key Commercialisation targets for fuel cells in Japan141

* Goals until 2010: commercialisation of 50 000 fuel cell vehicles and 2.1GW of stationary fuel cells.

* Goals until 2020: commercialisation of 5 million fuel cell vehicles and 10GW of stationary fuel cells.

* Cost targets (post 2010) include: below euros 36/kW for a fuel cell vehicle, below euros 2,160 per system for home use and euros 1,080/kW for business use.

I-7 Fuel Cells funding in FP5 and FP6


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I-8 Hydrogen funding in FP5 and FP6


I-9 Funding for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell RTD across Europe, the US and Japan

Note: In absence of data, EC funding is assumed to be 20% of the total funding in Europe.

* The funding data for the US includes funding by the EERE basic energy sciences and transportation offices of US-DoE. It also includes the funding for the FreedomCAR and vehicle technologies programme. It does not include funding by the fossil fuels and nuclear energy offices of DoE and the US Dept. of Defence.

* Japanese data refers to the METI/NEDO's funding for fuel cells and hydrogen in 2005. EC (FP6) funding is assumed to be spread evenly across the four years.

A word of caution: It should be noted that the funding figures (except Germany) relate to the funding for the hydrogen and fuel cell technologies by the central funding agency. There is also substantial state/regional level funding, in addition to private funding for research on these technologies. It is commonly believed that the total level of funding (i.e. national, state and private) in the US and Japan is at least as much as (or more than) it is in Europe. Also, the level of public funding should not be used to draw conclusions about the leadership in research across Europe, the US and Japan, as industrial funding does not form part of this analysis.

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Annex II: CO2 Capture and Storage

II-1 Core R&D areas in the field of carbon sequestration research in the US

Core R&D

Deals with the advancement of CO2 capture and storage technologies and systems to the point of pre-commercial deployment of the technologies. The following key areas are researched:

* CO2 Capture: the aim is to develop at least two capture technologies that each result in less than:

> 20% increase in cost of energy services by 2007

> 10% increase in cost of energy services by 2012.

* CO2 Storage: the objective of research in this field is to demonstrate the ability to predict CO2 storage capacity with +/-30% accuracy by 2012. The research also aims to demonstrate enhanced CO2 trapping at pre-commercial scale by 2012.

* Monitoring, Mitigation, and Verification (MM&V): the research aims to achieve CO2 material balance greater than 99% by 2012. Also, by 2012, MM&V protocols should enable 95% of stored CO2 to be credited as net emissions reduction.

* Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gas Control: this includes research on capture and re-use of methane emissions. The research aims at commercial deployment of at least two technologies from the R&D programme by 2012.

* Breakthrough Concepts: a group of projects with a higher technical uncertainty and the potential to expand the en applicability of carbon sequestration beyond conventional point source emissions.

* Field Projects: verification of promising technologies across all areas, often involving the integration of more than one area.

II-2 Japanese research in the field of ocean sequestration

* Dissolution type sequestration: rapid dilution of dissolved CO2 in large volumes of seawater. This is represente by the so-called "moving ship type".

* Storage type sequestration: local deposition of liquid CO2 in a topographic depression of the ocean floor deeper than 3 km. This is the so-called "lake type".

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II-3 EC funding to Carbon Capture and Storage Technologies in FP5 and FP6


II-4 Funding to Carbon Capture and Storage Technologies in Europe, the US and Japan


A word of caution: It should be noted that funding figures relate to funding of carbon capture and storage-related technologies by the central funding agency. There is also substantial state/regional level funding, in addition to private funding for research in these technologies. The funding by the US DoE for clean coal technologies has also not been included, in order to provide a fair comparison with the EC and Japanese funded research in the field of CO2 capture and storage. However, funding figures for Europe in general include funding for cleaning coal, whilst funding for carbon capture and storage is grouped together with funding on coal for countries such as Germany and UK. Also, the level of public funding should not be used to draw conclusions about the leadership in research across Europe, the US and Japan as industrial funding does not form part of this analysis.

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II-5 NEDO's recent programmes and budget for CO2 fixation and utilisation technology research

* R&D of Environment friendly catalytic reaction technology (1992-2001), 2001 budget - euros 2.9M (JPY 410 M).

* Development of technology for predicting environmental impact of CO2 ocean sequestration (1997-2001), 2001 budget - euros 9.1 M (JPY 1.26 billion).

* Programmed method CO2 fixation and effective utilisation technology development (1999-2003), 2001 budget -euros1.4M(JPY200M).

* Development of energy efficient CO2 fixation and utilisation technology for recycling waste paper (2000-2004), 2001 budget - euros 2.5 M (JPY 350 M).

* CO2 recovery and utilisation technology using coal and natural gas (2000-2004), 2001 budget - euros 3.2 M (JPY 440 M).

* R&D on underground sequestration of CO2 (2000-2004), 2001 budget - euros 6.1 M (JPY 850 M).

* Investigation of CO2 fixation and utilisation techniques (2001-open), 2001 budget - euros 0.2 M (JPY 30 M).

* Development of practical applications of CO2 fixation and effective utilisation technologies (2001-open), 2001 budget - euros 2.2 M (JPY 300 M)

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Annex III: Photovoltaics

III-1 Objectives of Main National Players in Photovoltaic Research

The PV RTD portfolio of Member States is relatively coherent with the EC portfolio. The general focus in all countries is on cost reduction. Research generally ranges from very fundamental basic research at the cell level to applied research aiming at implementation at the industry level. Main players in Europe are Germany, the Netherlands and Switzerland.

Major goals in Germany are:

* Enhancing efficiency (especially commercially produced systems)

* Reduction of material use

* Automation of production processes (improve energy and cost efficiency).

Technical targets include the enhancement of silicon feedstock technology, thin film technologies (from the lab to the market) and system integration (grid integration, development of stand-alone systems in combination with energy storage systems). Socio-economic issues, like assessment of ecological impacts and user acceptance issues, are also explicitly part of the PV research programme.

In the Netherlands the main focus of PV RTD activities is on cost reduction and quality improvement, primarily aiming at facilitating the continual learning process for PV modules. Key technologies researched are both wafer-based (multi-) crystalline silicon and thin film technologies (especially low temperature thin film silicon).

Special attention is given to:

* Improvement of the PUM cell (positive and negative back contacts)

* RGS processes, and roll-to-roll processes.

Apart from this, important work is being done on solar grade silicon, CIS cells, dye-sensitised solar cells ("Grätzel" cells), polymer-based solar cells and new concepts for solar cells based on sensitised oxides (ETA solar cell). A new PV programme aims at cooperation with R&D centres and industries outside the traditional PV community (e.g. for polymer-based cell research).

The activities in Switzerland are also worth mentioning as this is a country where a strong knowledge base in the field of new materials (dye-sensitised cells, organic cells) has been established. In the field of system development and demonstration, heavy focus is put on building integrated PVs. There are good collaboration ties with Member States via EC-funded research.

Research priority setting in Japan is generally viewed as tending to be top down with a strong focus on industry interest. In the case of PVs this approach is supported by the fact that Japan's PV industry is dominated by a few global players (e.g. Sharp), in contrast to the structure of the European PV industry which is dominated by SMEs.

Nevertheless the Japanese PV RTD program and the related demonstration efforts are distributed among four institutions: NEDO, WETI, the Agency for Natural Resources and Energy/Ministry of Economy, and the Ministry of the Environment. The major share of research activities is handled by NEDO which sets the following priorities:

Development of Advanced Solar Cells and Modules

Pursued technologies are:

* High quality thin film crystalline silicon solar cells

* High quality thin film CIS solar cell modules

* Super high-efficiency solar cells.

Investigation for Innovative PV Technology

With the focus on substantially reducing costs, NEDO is developing solar cells and system technologies based on revolutionary materials, structures and processes. Various thin film technologies and dye-sensitised solar cells are being investigated.

PV System Technology for Mass Deployment

Focus is on reliability, durability and recyclability.

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Development of Technology to Accelerate the Dissemination of Photovoltaic Power Generation Systems

In this field mainly silicon-related technologies, including silicon feedstock, are addressed.

NEDO has set up a "PV Roadmap Toward 2030" defining long-term R&D targets142. A change from "seeds-driven R&D" towards "market-driven R&D" is envisaged, based on the analysis that the initial goal - creating a market for PV - has been reached. Future R&D is divided into categories, from fundamental technology R&D to R&D for practical use.

Priority setting in the United States (US department of Energy - Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy) tends to cover the same range as EU PV research. EERE research programmes are structured along the production chain and focus on:

Fundamental Research

* Measurements and characterisation capabilities focus on improving the efficiency of cell materials and devices.

* High Performance Initiative: large-area, multi-junction thin films and super high-efficiency concentrating cells.

* The Collaborative Crystalline Silicon Initiative is designed to strengthen the position of the US in international crystalline silicon (c-Si) photovoltaic system markets.

Materials and Devices

* Building integrated photovoltaics

* The Thin Film Partnership focuses on amorphous silicon, copper indium diSelenide, cadmium telluride and thin film silicon. The goal is to improve thin film module efficiencies from 10.5% in 2004 to 11.5% in 2006.

* The crystalline silicon R&D strategy is to use a small amount of federal funding to leverage continued industry research with the aim of improving module efficiencies from 13% in 2004 to 14% in 2006.

* Further activities are partnerships within the domestic PV industry (advanced manufacturing R&D) and research into new thin film module long-term reliability.

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