Comprehending the Mobility Factors of Albanian citizens from 1991-2016, in a more complex globalized world

AuthorNeshat Zeneli
PositionUniversity of Tirana
Vol. 1 No. 2
June, 2017
European Journal of Economics, Law and Social Sciences
IIPCCL Publishing, Graz-Austria
ISSN 2519-1284
Acces online at
Comprehending the Mobility Factors of Albanian citizens from 1991-2016, in
a more complex globalized world
PhD (C.) Neshat Zeneli
University of Tirana
In the decade of the twentieth century, 1991-2000, a massive increase of Albanian emigration
has been recorded related to two main factors:-collapse of communist regime in 31 march
1991, which has produced a massive emigration toward Italy, and Greece (regular and
irregular),-and the crisis of march 1997 due to the collapse of nancial pyramidal schemes.
Some stable situation has been noted in the rst decade of 21-st century (2001-2010). Because
of the economic crisis of 2008-2012, in the second decade of 21-st century and because of the
new phenomena “asylum seeking”,, the return phenomena has become and is still today the
agenda of the day in the EU.
The returned phenomena is on the top of the agenda for the host countries, but the reintegration
of returned people/emigrants beside the category where they belong (voluntary return to be
integrated in home country, returned because of lost of jobs and di culties a er the crisis of
2008-2012, returns of minors and forced returned), is not yet responding to the real needs of
returned people. The aim of this article is to comprehend: -the push and pull factors of the
mobility out in general and by quali cation level in particular in order to identify the main
problem, the functioning or no functioning of the reintegration policy process as part of social
policy and propose conclusions and recommendations that could help solving the problems
identi ed by using scienti c methods.
Keywords: Mobility (regular/irregular), Factors of mobility, Return phenomenon,
The migration process of Albanian citizens from 1990-2016, has known four main
The rst one was in 1990-1996, recognized by three main phenomena:
“Embassy Migrants, Summer –July 1990-”, with more than 5000 people1 refuges
in the Westerner Embassy, from which 3,199 people or 63% were housed in West
Germany, and the 12 July has been convoyed to the port city of Durres toward
Italy to bring them by train to Germany, France etc,
“ Mass Exodus”, March, August 1991, through the “boat people exodus to southern
Italy, where 25,000 migrants were accepted and se led in Italy and
Regular and Irregular migration till 1996.
The second one 1997-2000, this has been characterized by two main crises: “The
Pyramidal Crisis, March 1997, and Kosovo Crisis 1998-1999, (end of war 11 June
1 Migration and Development in Albania, Working Paper C5, Sussex Centre for Migration Re-
search, December 2003, page 25.

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