Concluding remarks

AuthorVasilis Karlos - Martin Larcher
7!Concluding remarks
The current guideline has sought to underline the need for both state and private stakeholders to update their
strategy on building perimeter protection, especiall y in response to emerging threats and challenges arising
from the great technological advancements of the modern era. A number of different threats against the
building infrastructure and linked to the risk of terrorism have been collected, adapted and presented in this
report, focusing on the principles that guide the selection and installation of protection solutions. As has been
highlighted in many parts, a reliance on a sole protection measure is highly unlikely to safeguard against all
the presented attack scenarios. Consequently, it is imperative to develop of a comprehensive protection strategy
that will effectively integrate the different protection technologies within a broad multi-threat framework.
A holistic protection planning, followed by a multidimensional response, needs to commence with an asset-
specific risk assessment that draws together various terrorism-related data and provides tailor-made
suggestions for reducing the risk of a terrorist attack. Prior incidents may provide valuable information regarding
the likelihood of an attack and prevailing attack tactics, while assessing the vulnerabilities of the examined site
can reveal the consequences if an attack materializes. Despite the fact that zero risk is impractical in both
technical and economic terms, a carefully considered, thorough and well-balanced protection plan will
substantially reduce the risk posed from a terrorist attack against a building structure.
A methodology for the calculation of external explosion loads that need to be considered in the blast protection
design of a structure has been presented. Thus, several formulas, graphs and diagrams have been included,
which make this guide sufficiently self-contained, especially for relatively simple cases of blast loading. Various
techniques for the protection of structures against external and internal explosive loads have been introduced
which are of particular interest for vulnerable areas, such as access control zones and other freely accessible
building locations. Moreover, to minimize the likelihood of the development of a progressive collapse
mechanism, design considerations have been included, such as the reinforcement of key structural elements
and promotion of structural robustness techniques.
Protection against attacks with the use of vehicles, that are used to either ram into crowded places or to transfer
an explosive device close to a facility, can be accomplished by implementing a hardened perimeter. Physical
protection measures around buildings and critical infrastructures restrict unauthorised vehicle access and
enforce a minimum stand-off distance between the building façade and the potential IED. Within this guide an
approach for the selection of simple, tailor-made and effective perimeter protection measures has been
exhibited, focusing on measures that can be harmonically integrated to the surrounding environment according
to a security-by-design concept. This means that security measures can be embedded into innovative
architectural and artistic concepts, without sacrificing their impact performance and stopping power.
Digital advancements can al so facilitate building security by employing state-of-the-art technologies, such as
video surveillance, intruder detection, smart sensors, access control and video analytics. These systems can
significantly enhance the security of vulnerable sites through harnessing and analysing incoming data,
predicting states of emergency and guaranteeing quick response in case of an incident. Intelligent video
surveillance systems and smart sensors bring security breaches directly to the attention of security officials
minimizing reaction time and therefore mitigating potential consequence s. The integration of different building
perimeter securi ty systems into one software platform resul ts in increased effectiveness and lower
administration, training and maintenance cost. This cooperation of various securi ty components under a single
and flexible system is usually complex and characterized by interoperability issues, requiring immediate data
sharing and standardized interfaces and protocols that in some cases are still missing.
Building perimeter protection planning needs to include techniques that enhance conventional security
measures, so as to respond to the novel threat landscape, such as the misuse of UAS. To counter these complex
and rapidly evol ving threats one has to prepare for terrorist tactics that were not considered in the past and
respond dynamically by investing in innovative countering tools. Careful consideration is required when selecting
counter technologies, as legal restrictions and lack of common testing protocols may result in operational
constraints and ineffectiveness respectively. The preferred response to the multifaceted threat of UAS depends
greatly on the operating environment, the location of the examined facility and the legal and regulatory
frameworks set in each Member State. Moreover, artificial intelligence and automation are quickly transforming
the threat landscape creating new security challenges that call for continuous monitoring of technological
developments both in a ‘malicious use’ (attacking vulnerable facilities) and a countering (providing practical
countermeasures) concept.

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