Country Profile: Denmark

AuthorNaldini, Andrea; Pompili, Marco; Peruccacci, Eleonora
7.1. Section 1 - Nat ional rules for t he evaluat ion of State aid schemes
7.1. 1. Obligation or lack ther eof to evaluate
There are no general legal obligat ions to ev aluat e public policies in Denmark . This
means t hat there are no law concerning th e requirement t o evaluat e public policies in
gen eral. However, m ultiple laws on specific policies contain an obligation t o evaluate.
In Denmark there is a st rong cultu re concern ing the need t o ev aluate pu blic policies to
secure legit imacy. Th is means t hat m ost of the public policies, proj ect s and funds will
include a requirement to be evaluated in t he in it ial agreem ents and subsequent law.
The Rigsrevisionen (an independent inst it ution placed under the Danish Parliament)
au dit s t he S tat e b udg ets and bu dget s f or pub licly f inan ced com pani es i n De nm ark . Th ey
only examine account ings.
In Denmark, the legal regu lation relat ed t o the State aid area is lim it ed an d in m ost
cases t he EU law t akes preced ence. With t he State aid Modernisation ( SAM) initiat iv e
the Eur opea n Com missio n d efin ed n ew prin cipl es an d r equire men ts guid ing Sta te aid in
the EU. Since 2016, bot h th e requ irem ent s r egar din g ev alua tio ns on Sta te aid Schem es
and t he t ranspar ency requirement wer e implemented in Denmark according t o th e
Commission’s guidelines. Before 2 01 6, t here were no nat ional laws prescribing
evaluat ions of State aid sch emes.
7.1. 2. Procedu res to en force the o bligation
As of 2020, ther e are n o national legal requirement s to und ertake evaluations of St ate
aid in Denm ar k. The im plem entation of the EU requirement to evaluat e aid over the
am ount of EUR 1 50 milli on is t her efor e t he only legal req uir ement to eva luat e St ate ai d
schemes121. However , in Denm ark a State aid scheme will be presented in a political
agr eement . The agreem ent will usu ally include a description of the obligation to
evalu ate the schem e. Political agreem ents are not bin ding, but th ey most oft en lead up
to a law. On ly if the law cont ains an obligation t o evalu at e, t he evaluat ion is bin ding.
Generally, ther e exists a st rong cu lt ur e for evaluation in Denmark and most of the big
proj ect s and init iatives are evaluat ed both on a national and a local level. The Danish
St ate aid syst em is how eve r t o a lar ge ext en t b uil t a rou nd tr ust an d n o le gal pr ocedu res
are m ade to enforce th e EU obligat ion to evaluate.
7.2. Section 2 - Nat ional authorit ies responsible f or th e evaluat ion of State aid
7.2. 1. Nat ional organ isation for State aid
In Denmark the State aid Division at the Ministry of Business, Indust ry and Financial
Affair s are t he central adm in ist ration on matters of State aid. The State aid Div ision
of fer s leg al a dvi ce t o t he nat ion al a war din g b odie s, e speci ally wh en th ere is d oub t a bou t
whether initiat ives, legislat ion or public funding entail St at e aid. They do however not
evaluate St at e a id sch em es or syst em at ica lly m on ito r th e l egal r equ ire me nt s t o eva luat e
the larger systems of aid. The NCA ( the Dan ish Consumer and Compet it ion Aut hority )
is respon sible for enf orcing the nat ional compet ition law , in cluding for domestic
121The State aid Handbook, 20 17. Accessed the 17. 03.20 20 at :
ht tp s: // /media/1 0141/ st at sst oet tehaandbog-2017 .pdf

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