Country Profile: Sweden

AuthorNaldini, Andrea; Pompili, Marco; Peruccacci, Eleonora
Int roduct ion
Sweden is a centralised coun try, where the g overnm ent is the main authorit y
responsible for m anaging and evalu at ing public policies. Evaluat ions of public policies,
including State aid schemes, are usually carried out by several ex perienced
gov ernment al entities/ agen cies.
25.1. Sect ion 1 - National r ules for t he evaluation of St ate aid schemes
25.1 .1 . Obligat ion or lack ther eof to evaluat e
The Swedish evaluation scene is largely focused on sector-based int erest s and t his
app lies also to St ate aid eva luat ion . Ge neral obli gat ions to ev alua te are laid do wn in the
legislation on the g overnm ental agencies r esponsible for analysis and evaluation
pr act ices reg ard ing th e u se o f p ubl ic f und ing in t heir r espe ctiv e f iel ds, incl udi ng gra nt ing
authorities of St at e aid. Obligations to evaluate include, im plicitly, St at e aid schemes
as a part of t he analysis on the use of public funding, alth ough t here ar e no national
rules specifically addr essing State aid ev aluat ion. No authority h as responsibility for
continuously m onitoring and an alysing the ov er all st ate of St at e aid gover nance, with
follow -up , ev aluation an d analy sis done by secto r.
When the Govern ment desi gns a m easur e and incl udes an evaluat ion pla n, carr yin g ou t
an ev alua tio n is m andat ory an d an y of the gover nm ent al agen cies may be req uest ed t o
proceed with t he evaluation. The legal basis ensur ing that evaluation s com ply with the
EU rules is laid down in the Law on t he applicat ion of the Eur opean Union’s State aid
ru les (2 013: 388 ). To conclude, the ob ligati on t o evaluate is ba sed o n a legal o bligation
but highly dependent on sectoral administr ativ e pract ices to car ry out analyses on the
efficiency of the use of public fu nding. The prevailing legal obligat ions do not lay down
any provisions on systematic evaluation practices with r espect to St at e aid, when
evaluation is not m andatory accor ding to th e EU rules and Law 201 3: 388. When
evalu atio n is m andatory, th e law is en forced by carr yin g ou t a n ev aluation according to
an ev aluat ion plan.
For ex amp le, the Sw edish Agenc y for Gr owt h Poli cy A naly sis, Grow th Anal ysis has been
com m issio ned by th e Gov ern me nt to ev aluat e and anal yse Swed ish gro wt h p olicy u nder
Ord inance 2016: 1 04 8. I t s tasks in clu de gather ing microdata on State aid schem es
granted t o businesses. Compared t o the EU report ing requirements, its m ission is, on
the one hand, narr ower in scope as it does not gather m icrodat a on St at e aid in all
sect or s, while, on the other , it is broader as it includes small-scale Stat e aid falling
outside th e scop e of EU St at e aid control.
In addition t o the government al agencies, the National Audit Office
(Riksr ev isionsverket) act in g as Supreme Au dit Inst it ution an d operating as an
independent body under th e Swedish Parliament is also active on St ate aid ev aluation
on its ow n initiat ive under Ordinance 1998: 4 18 . The Sw edish Agency for Public
Management ( St at skontoret) mandated by t he Ministry of Finance is also act ive in
dev eloping ev aluat ion practice in Sw eden though its role in St ate aid ev aluation is
lim ited.
Ex-ante assessment on meeting t he precon ditions an d the pr ocedures under EU law is
carried out within t he Ministr y of Enterprise and I nn ovation . In addit ion, the National

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