Directive 2012/27/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 October 2012 on energy efficiency, amending Directives 2009/125/EC and 2010/30/EU and repealing Directives 2004/8/EC and 2006/32/EC Text with EEA relevance

Coming into Force04 December 2012
End of Effective Date31 December 9999
Celex Number32012L0027
Publication Date14 November 2012
Date25 October 2012
Official Gazette PublicationJournal officiel de l’Union européenne, L 315, 14 novembre 2012,Gazzetta ufficiale dell’Unione europea, L 315, 14 novembre 2012,Diario Oficial de la Unión Europea, L 315, 14 de noviembre de 2012
14.11.2012 EN Official Journal of the European Union L 315/1


of 25 October 2012

on energy efficiency, amending Directives 2009/125/EC and 2010/30/EU and repealing Directives 2004/8/EC and 2006/32/EC

(Text with EEA relevance)


Having regard to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, and in particular Article 194(2) thereof,

Having regard to the proposal from the European Commission,

After transmission of the draft legislative act to the national parliaments,

Having regard to the opinion of the European Economic and Social Committee (1),

Having regard to the opinion of the Committee of the Regions (2),

Acting in accordance with the ordinary legislative procedure (3),


(1) The Union is facing unprecedented challenges resulting from increased dependence on energy imports and scarce energy resources, and the need to limit climate change and to overcome the economic crisis. Energy efficiency is a valuable means to address these challenges. It improves the Union’s security of supply by reducing primary energy consumption and decreasing energy imports. It helps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in a cost-effective way and thereby to mitigate climate change. Shifting to a more energy-efficient economy should also accelerate the spread of innovative technological solutions and improve the competitiveness of industry in the Union, boosting economic growth and creating high quality jobs in several sectors related to energy efficiency.
(2) The Conclusions of the European Council of 8 and 9 March 2007 emphasised the need to increase energy efficiency in the Union to achieve the objective of saving 20 % of the Union’s primary energy consumption by 2020 compared to projections. The conclusions of the European Council of 4 February 2011 emphasised that the 2020 20 % energy efficiency target as agreed by the June 2010 European Council, which is presently not on track, must be delivered. Projections made in 2007 showed a primary energy consumption in 2020 of 1 842 Mtoe. A 20 % reduction results in 1 474 Mtoe in 2020, i.e. a reduction of 368 Mtoe as compared to projections.
(3) The Conclusions of the European Council of 17 June 2010 confirmed the energy efficiency target as one of the headline targets of the Union’s new strategy for jobs and smart, sustainable and inclusive growth (‘Europe 2020 Strategy’). Under this process and in order to implement this objective at national level, Member States are required to set national targets in close dialogue with the Commission and to indicate, in their National Reform Programmes, how they intend to achieve them.
(4) The Commission Communication of 10 November 2010 on Energy 2020 places energy efficiency at the core of the Union energy strategy for 2020 and outlines the need for a new energy efficiency strategy that will enable all Member States to decouple energy use from economic growth.
(5) In its resolution of 15 December 2010 on the Revision of the Energy Efficiency Action Plan, the European Parliament called on the Commission to include in its revised Energy Efficiency Action Plan measures to close the gap to reach the overall Union energy efficiency objective in 2020.
(6) One of the initiatives of the Europe 2020 Strategy is the flagship resource-efficient Europe adopted by the Commission on 26 January 2011. This identifies energy efficiency as a major element in ensuring the sustainability of the use of energy resources.
(7) The Conclusions of the European Council of 4 February 2011 acknowledged that the Union energy efficiency target is not on track and that determined action is required to tap the considerable potential for higher energy savings in buildings, transport, products and processes. Those conclusions also provide that the implementation of the Union energy efficiency target will be reviewed by 2013 and further measures considered if necessary.
(8) On 8 March 2011, the Commission adopted its Communication on an Energy Efficiency Plan 2011. The Communication confirmed that the Union is not on track to achieve its energy efficiency target. This is despite the progress in national energy efficiency policies outlined in the first National Energy Efficiency Action Plans submitted by Member States in fulfilment of the requirements of Directive 2006/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2006 on energy end-use efficiency and energy services (4). Initial analysis of the second Action Plans confirms that the Union is not on track. To remedy that, the Energy Efficiency Plan 2011 spelled out a series of energy efficiency policies and measures covering the full energy chain, including energy generation, transmission and distribution; the leading role of the public sector in energy efficiency; buildings and appliances; industry; and the need to empower final customers to manage their energy consumption. Energy efficiency in the transport sector was considered in parallel in the White Paper on Transport, adopted on 28 March 2011. In particular, Initiative 26 of the White Paper calls for appropriate standards for CO2 emissions of vehicles in all modes, where necessary supplemented by requirements on energy efficiency to address all types of propulsion systems.
(9) On 8 March 2011, the Commission also adopted a Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050, identifying the need from this perspective for more focus on energy efficiency.
(10) In this context it is necessary to update the Union’s legal framework for energy efficiency with a Directive pursuing the overall objective of the energy efficiency target of saving 20 % of the Union’s primary energy consumption by 2020, and of making further energy efficiency improvements after 2020. To that end, this Directive should establish a common framework to promote energy efficiency within the Union and lay down specific actions to implement some of the proposals included in the Energy Efficiency Plan 2011 and achieve the significant unrealised energy saving potentials it identifies.
(11) Decision No 406/2009/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the effort of Member States to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions to meet the Community’s greenhouse gas emission reduction commitments up to 2020 (5) requires the Commission to assess and report by 2012 on the progress of the Union and its Member States towards the objective of reducing energy consumption by 20 % by 2020 compared to projections. It also states that, to help Member States meet the Union’s greenhouse gas emission reduction commitments, the Commission should propose, by 31 December 2012, strengthened or new measures to accelerate energy efficiency improvements. This Directive responds to this requirement. It also contributes to meeting the goals set out in the Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050, in particular by reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the energy sector, and to achieving zero emission electricity production by 2050.
(12) An integrated approach has to be taken to tap all the existing energy saving potential, encompassing savings in the energy supply and the end-use sectors. At the same time, the provisions of Directive 2004/8/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 February 2004 on promotion of cogeneration based on a useful heat demand in the internal energy market (6) and Directive 2006/32/EC should be strengthened.
(13) It would be preferable for the 20 % energy efficiency target to be achieved as a result of the cumulative implementation of specific national and European measures promoting energy efficiency in different fields. Member States should be required to set indicative national energy efficiency targets, schemes and programmes. These targets and the individual efforts of each Member State should be evaluated by the Commission, alongside data on the progress made, to assess the likelihood of achieving the overall Union target and the extent to which the individual efforts are sufficient to meet the common goal. The Commission should therefore closely monitor the implementation of national energy efficiency programmes through its revised legislative framework and within the Europe 2020 process. When setting the indicative national energy efficiency targets, Member States should be able to take into account national circumstances affecting primary energy consumption such as remaining cost-effective energy-saving potential, changes in energy imports and exports, development of all sources of renewable energies, nuclear energy, carbon capture and storage, and early action. When undertaking modelling exercises, the Commission should consult Member States on model assumptions and draft model results in a timely and transparent manner. Improved modelling of the impact of energy efficiency measures and of the stock and performance of technologies is needed.
(14) Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources (7) states that Cyprus and Malta, due to their insular and peripheral character, rely on aviation as a mode of transport, which is essential for their citizens and their economy. As a result, Cyprus and Malta have a gross final consumption of energy in national air transport which is disproportionately high, i.e. more than three times the Community average in 2005, and are thus disproportionately affected by the current technological and regulatory constraints.
(15) The total volume of public spending is

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