Equal pay and equal treatment at work (Article 157 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) and Recast Directive 2006/54)

AuthorKoldinská, Kristina
4 Equal pay and equal treatment at work (Article 157 of the Treaty on the
Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) and Recast D irective 2006/54)
4.1 General (legal) context
4.1.1 Surveys on the gender pay gap and the difficulties of realising equal pay
The following recent studies on the gender pay gap may be of interest:
The study Gender pay gap a problem for all of us19 shows how the problem of pay
inequalities is perceived by the Czech public as well as by individual expert groups which
address this issue. It also includes personal experiences of people in specific labour
market environments. As the first such publication in the Czech context, it also maps the
perspectives of individual actors on wage bargaining, monitoring and possible solutions
to unequal pay. In addition to perspectives of employers and workers, it also includes
the viewpoint of the state and its legislative and control bodies, such as th e State Labour
Inspection Office, the Labour Office, trade unions and unions, employers organisations
and the Public Defender of Rights Office. The book also provides recommendations for
addressing the gender pay gap at national level as well as in the public administration,
education and private sectors.
The study Gender pay gap in the Czech Republic20 presented th e following key findings.
The Czech Republic is a country with one of the highest levels of pay inequalities
between women and men in the same working position and at the same workplace.
While in Western European countries the gender pay gap for the same job and for work
of the same valu e is 5 %, wom en in the Czech Republic are paid on average 11 % less
than men for the same job with the same employer.
The widest gender pay gap sorted by level of education can be found between men and
women with university or high school education and this even applies to the pay gap in
the case of equal work with the same employer (10 %). The pay gap between
university-educated women and men has increased in the past 10 years.
The comparison of the public and private sectors shows that gender pay gaps are
generally lower in the public sector, but they are still significant there. The salaries of
women and men performing the same work for the same employer in the public sector
differ on average by 5 %, as compared to a pay gap which is roughly double this in the
private sphere.
Differences can be found in different areas of the labour market: in the financial and
insurance sectors and in the construction sector, the gender pay gap is very wide;
women in these sectors receive 17 % or 14 % less th an men working in the same job. In
contrast, women receive 5-6 % less than men working in the sam e job in the education
and administration sectors.
The average gender pay gap between women a nd men aged 25 to 55 was approximately
26 % in 2016.
The diff erences in the individual positions and characteristics of men and women, such
as leadership, full-time jobs, education, age, etc., account for only 0.54 percentage
19 Kížková, A., Marková Volejníčková, R., Vohlídalová, M. (2018), Genderové nerovnosti v odmování:
problém nás všech (Gender pay gap a problem for all of us). Sociologický ústav AV ČR: Praha. Available
at: www.soc.cas.cz/publikace/genderove-nerovnosti-v-odmenovani-problem-nas-vsech.
20 Kížková, A., Pospíšilová, K., Maíková, H., Marková Volejníčková, R. (2018), Rozdíly v odmování žen a
muž v ČR (Gender pay gap in the Czech Republic), MPSV: Praha. Available at:

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