AuthorEuropean Institute for Gender Equality (EU body or agency)
European Institute for Gender Equality8
The following definitions are used in the repor t.
Gender-based violence refers to any act of
violence directed against a person because
of their gender. Because women are exposed
to this violence to a greater extent, gen-
der-based violence is used interchangeably
with violence against women from this
point onwards in this report.
Intimate partner violence is ‘[a]ny act of
physical, sexual, psychological or economic
violence that occurs bet ween former or cur-
rent spouses or partners, whether or not the
perpetrator shares or has shared the same
residence with the victim (EIGE, 2017b). This
definition includes all forms of intimate part-
ner violence. This violence constitutes a form
of violence which af fects women dispropor-
tionately and which is therefore distinctly
gendered (EIGE, Glossary and Thesaurus).
Domestic violence (also referred to as
domestic abuse) is all acts of physical, sex-
ual, psychological or economic violence that
occur within the family or domestic unit, irre-
spective of biological or legal family ties, or
between former or current spouses or par t-
ners, whether or not the perpetrator shares
or has shared the same residence as the
victim (EIGE (Glossary and Thesaurus), based
on Council of Europe (2011)).
A witness is an adult who observes or is oth-
erwise made aware of intimate partner vio-
lence (or suspects intimate partner violence).
Witnesses’ suppor t for victims (also
referred to as intervening) encompasses
a range of actions including talking to the
victim, helping them to access suppor t and
accompanying them to support services, as
well as reporting the case to the police or
relevant authorities or helping the victim to
do so.
A professional is s o me o ne wh o wo rk s at a re l-
evant competent authority (such as the police
or judiciary, a national or local authority or a
support serv ice) and works with witnesses.
An environment is to be understood as the
setting in which reporting of intimate partner
violence often occurs.
A victim is a ‘natural person who has suffered
harm, including physical, mental or emotional
harm or economic loss which was directly
caused by a criminal of fence (European
Parliament and Council of the European
Union, 2012).

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