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Academic Journal of Business, Administration, Law and Social Sciences Vol. 2 No. 1
the decision is not clear and understood, or because the decision is not accepted. On
the other hand, a participatory decision-making process increases the personal
motivation (Lawrence & Seiler, 1984; Miller & Monge, 1986). Empirical studies have
shown that the group increases satisfaction (Black & Gregersen, 1997; Wright & Kim,
2004) and self-confidence (Parnell & Crandall, 1994).
We may think that group decisions are qualitatively better than those of individuals,
but it must be emphasized that also groups can make bad decisions. Here we can
mention groupthinking (Janis, 1982), polarization (Stoner, 1961; Burnstein & Vinokur,
1977), time limits (Vroom & Yetton, 1973; Nooderhaven, 1995; Kume, 2002) and the
effect of common information (Stasser & Titus, 1985; Gigone & Hastie, 1993).
However, we must admit that the benefits of group decision-making process are
numerous compared to the problems. It is necessary that the benefits of group decision-
making process do not become absolute conclusions (Noorderhaven, 1995). Everything
depends on the criteria according to which the comparison is made (Brown, 1988,
p.127). So, if it is used as a criterion of time, then it is preferable an individual decision
making. But if we seek effectiveness instead of efficiency, then groups do better. Hence,
it becomes important to define what is meant by group effectiveness.
The adoption of group decision-making process is not a guarantee for success, because
the effectiveness of the group is influenced by many factors. This is undoubtedly a
very complex subject, but in the following we are trying to discuss different factors
that can affect the quality of group decisions and then to draw conclusions that can
improve and make better and easier these processes.
The aim of the study and research question
The benefits of group decision-making are numerous compared with individual
processes. The aim of this paper is to show that group decision-making processes can
also lead to bad decisions, because the effectiveness of group is affected by many
factors. So, in relation to the aim, the research questions are formulated as follows:
1. Which are the advantages that accompany the group decision-making?
2. Are the benefits sufficient to affirm that groups lead to better decisions
compared with individuals?
3. Which are the factors that affect the effectiveness of the group and how do
they influence the quality of decisions?
For this paper is adopted the literature on based research methodology. So, the study
starts bringing a general theoretical framework of the group decision-making process,
with its benefits and limits. It continues trying to provide a theoretical overview in
order to understand which are the factors that become important talking about quality
of decisions and how they can affect group effectiveness.
This methodology assumes importance because analyzing and discussing the
theoretical basis of group decision-making effectiveness, we can:
- find new ideas for future researches;
- define different objects of investigation;