Guidance on particular profiles with regard to qualification for refugee status

AuthorEuropean Asylum Support Office (EU body or agency)
Guidance note | Iraq
January 2021
Guidance on particular profiles with regard to qualification for
refugee status
This section refers to some of the profiles of Iraqi applicants, encountered in the caseload of EU
Member States. It provides general conclusions on the prof iles and guidance regarding additional
circumstances to take into account in the individual assessment. Some profiles are further split in
sub-profiles, with different conclusions with regard to the risk analysis and/or nexus to a reason for
persecution. The corresponding number of the profile and a link to the respective section in the
common analysis are always provided for ease of reference.
The conclusions regarding each profile should be viewed without prejudice to the credibility
assessment of the applicant’s claims.
When reading the table below, the following should be borne in mind:
An individual applicant could fall under more than one profile included in this guidance
note. The protection needs associated with all such circum stances should be fully examined.
The risk analysis paragraphs focus on the level of risk and some of the relevant risk-
impacting circumstances. Further guidance with regard to the qualification of the acts as
persecution is available within the respective sections of the common analysis.
The table below summarises the conclusions with regard to different profiles and sub-
profiles and aims at providing a practical tool to case officers. While examples are provided
with regard to sub-profiles at differentiated risk and circumstances which may increase or
decrease the risk, these examples are non-exhaustive and to be taken into account in light
of all circumstances in the individual case.
Persons who belonged to a certain profile in the past or family members of an individual
falling under a certain profile may have protection needs similarly to those outlined for the
respective profile. This is not explicitly mentioned in the table below, however, it should be
taken into account in the individual assessment.
The potential nexus paragraphs indicate a possible connection to the reasons for
persecution according to Article 10 QD. The common analysis sections provide further
guidance whether a nexus to a reason for persecution would in general be substantiated or
may be substantiated depending on the individual circumsta nces in the case.
For some profiles, the connection may also be between the absence of protection against
persecution and one or more of the reasons under Article 10 QD (Article 9(3) QD).
2.1. Persons
perceived to be
associated with
Risk analysis: Well-founded fear of persecution would in general be
Potential nexus: (imputed) political opinion.
* Exclusion considerations could be relevant to this profile.

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