Hungarian participation in the First Battle of Kosovo 1389

AuthorMuhamet Mala
PositionUniversity of Pristina ? Kosovo
European Journal of Economics, Law and Social Sciences
IIPCCL Publishing, Graz-Austria
Vol. 1 No. 1
January 2017
ISSN 2519-1284
Acces online at
Hungarian participation in the First Ba le of Kosovo 1389
Assoc. Prof. Muhamet Mala
University of Pristina – Kosovo
The threat of O oman penetration in Europe urged Balkan feudal lords already disrupted
and dissented among themselves to temporarily leave con icts aside and form a wide anti-
o oman coalition. In this coalition, as opposed to dynastic succession problems, Hungary
was an active participant also due to the fact that it was directly threatened by the O oman
invasion. Based on sources of the time, an active participation in this ba le of Hungarians was
observed which ended up with the defeat of the Balkan coalition.
The e ects of the Ba le of Kosovo, in addition to the fact that they were directly re ected
in the political position of Kosovo itself, were expressed even in Hungarian areas, since the
O omans opened their way towards middle Danube and Sava valley, a route they would use
in upcoming years in case of a acks on Hungary and Central Europe.
Keywords: O oman Empire, Balkan, Kosovo, Hungary, Albanians, Serbs.
The Hungarian Kingdom, precisely on the verge of the rst Ba le of Kosovo, that took
place on 15 June 1389 was shocked by internal political ferment which was triggered
by the death of King Ludwig I. King Ludwig I did not leave a male heir, so that ghting
to inherit the throne destroyed the strong system of central power until then. Domestic
ghting to the throne enabled the neighboring countries of Hungary, namely Bosnia
and Serbia to intervene in internal a airs. The arrival in power of Sigismund changed
the situation and Hungary partially politically stabilised, achieved to dispatch troops
in the anti-o oman coalition in the First Ba le of Kosovo, but it lost the primacy of
anti-o oman war, which was conveyed to the Balkan princes.
Hungary had followed an active policy in the case of Bosnia, Croatia and even Serbia,
thereby giving these countries the opportunity to get involved in ghting for the
throne. Thus, the King Tvrtko of Bosnia was engaged in conquering territories in
Croatia and Dalmatia that were under Hungarian sovereignty. A turning point in
such an activity of neighboring countries interfering in wars for the Hungarian throne
was the capture in 1386 of the heir to the Hungary throne, Mary by Horvat brothers
near Gjakovo in Slavonia (Šišić, 1962, 216) who enjoyed Bosnian support. But,
supporters of Queen Mary crowned Sigismund as the king (future Mary’s husband)
with the help of Venice and upon this event, the situation changed in favor of the
central power. Sigismund allowed the release of Mary and achieved success in the
struggle against opponent contenders, respectively Anjou of the Naples party
represented by Horvat brothers and Ivan Palizhna. They were forced as losers to take
shelter at King Tvrtko of Bosnia and with his help, they wanted to restore their
positions lost in Hungary. Polarization between noblemen went on, so that Tvrtko

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