Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Portfolios

AuthorEuropean Union Publications Office, 2006

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Overview: Major Fields of Research and Key Nations Involved

Fuel Cells Hydrogen
R&D Areas MCFC, PEMFC, SOFC, Materials, safety codes and standards Hydrogen production, hydrogen storage, safety codes and standards
State of Commercialisation Medium term (around 2015-20) Long term (around 2050)
Key Nations Japan, US, Germany
Expected contribution to EU Energy policy targets Ensuring energy supply security while mitigating climate change to allow sustainable development
EC Policy Backing No EC Directive on hydrogen and fuel cells as yet, although the Biofuels Directive (Directive 92/81/EEC) promotes the use of hydrogen as an alternative fuel for transportation
Key Member States Germany, UK, France, Italy


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Significant advances are expected in the field of hydrogen and fuel cell technology development in the coming decades. These technologies are still at a nascent stage and it is expected that, backed by research, fuel cells will be commercialised, even though only for niche applications, by around 2015-2020. With the passage of time and development of technology, they will be mass commercialised and used in industries as diverse as automotive, power generation and consumer electronics by around 2035-20409.

The next couple of decades will also see the development of hydrogen infrastructure and the development of hydrogen production technologies. The focus of hydrogen research after 2020 will be on expanding and integrating the hydrogen infrastructure and on increasing production from renewables and carbon sequestration to achieve the goal of the development of a "Hydrogen Economy"10.

Research Priorities in EC, Member States and Third Countries

The current strategic areas of research of the EC RTD in hydrogen11 are:

Clean production

Development and techno-socio-economic assessment of cost-effective pathways for hydrogen production from existing and novel processes. Much research focuses on production of hydrogen from different renewable technologies. The RTD effort on hydrogen production from renewable sources has mainly involved processing different biomass feedstocks - often linked to applications in high-temperature fuel cells like SOFCs. In FP6 the projects in this field aim to develop the production of hydrogen-rich gases through energy- and cost-efficient methods. There is also research and development to produce SOFCs that can produce power from biomass and agricultural residues.


Exploration of innovative methods, including hybrid storage systems that could lead to breakthrough solutions.

Basic materials

Functional materials for electrolysers and fuel processors, novel materials for hydrogen storage and hydrogen separation and purification.


Pre-normative research and technology development required for the preparation of regulations and safety standards at EU and global level.

Preparing the transition to a hydrogen energy economy

EC-funded research in the area of fuel cell systems is aimed at:

* Reducing the cost and improving the performance

* Durability and safety: Improving the durability and safety of fuel cell systems for stationary and transport applications

* Materials and process development

* Optimisation and simplification of fuel cell components and sub-systems as well as modelling, testing and characterisation

* Long-term goal: The long-term goal is to achieve commercial viability for many applications by 2020.

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The CUTE project is an outstanding example of targeted coordination and collaboration between hydrogen and fuel cell research at the European level, with the objective of helping Europe harvest the full economic, social and environmental benefits of these technologies. By demonstrating the feasibility of fuel cell buses across Europe, the project is helping promote their acceptability. The development of fuelling stations will further the integration of hydrogen and fuel cell technology within the existing infrastructure. The overall cost of the project is euros 52.4 M and the EC contribution is euros 18.6M.

As part of the CUTE project different stakeholders, both public and private, across the eight major countries of Europe came together to develop the hydrogen infrastructure and demonstrate the feasibility of fuel cell buses under different climatic, topological and traffic conditions with the aim of:

* Collecting data from the operation of fuel cell buses in different conditions, and operating decentralised hydrogen production facilities.

* Exploring a wide range of pathways to produce hydrogen as a vehicle fuel.

* Gaining experience in the operation of novel small-scale hydrogen steam reformers.

* Developing a 350 bar hydrogen technology for both filling stations and onboard hydrogen gas cylinders.

The project was initiated in November 2001 and will continue until May 2006. Successful demonstration of the fuel cell buses in major European cities is helping assess and validate the costs and efficiency of hydrogen production and of the buses themselves. It is also helping to increase public awareness and acceptance of the technology. Data collected during the operation will contribute to developing the technologies further.

The project:

* involves large-scale demonstration of fuel cell buses in real-life conditions, thereby increasing the acceptability of fuel cell and hydrogen technologies

* promotes the development of a hydrogen infrastructure (hydrogen filing stations etc).

One of the key initiatives in promoting coordination of hydrogen and fuel cell R&D was the establishment of The European Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Technology Platform, launched in Jan 2004 to facilitate and accelerate the development of fuel cell and hydrogen energy systems and components. This aims to improve the effectiveness of research in Europe by developing a common vision and consistent strategic framework at the European level, structuring research into these technologies and promoting public and private funding in research and development.

The European Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Technology Platform has developed a Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) as a guide to the development of a comprehensive research strategy for Europe in the field of hydrogen and fuel cells. It defines priorities for investment in R&D based on the strengths and weaknesses of European research and includes an immediate-term research programme (to 2010), medium-term strategy (to 2030) and a long-term strategic outlook (to 2050).

Note: For further details of the key cost and quality targets set by SRA for stationary applications of fuel cells, please refer to Annex I-1

The European Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Technology Platform has also developed a Deployment Strategy to promote the development of commercially viable fuel cell applications and a hydrogen infrastructure. The deployment strategy is aligned to the goals and timelines of SRA in order to ensure that the targets for European research are met. The European Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Technology Platform brings together the key stakeholders in European research (the research community, industry, public and government institutions, the financial community and the general public) to leverage expert knowledge in Europe and meet the interests of the diverse stakeholders. This process facilitates coordination between European, national and regional research, and contributes to the achievement of overall European research goals and the development of the European Research Area (ERA).

Note: For details on deployment status for fuel cells applications by 2020, please refer to Annex I-2

The broad research priorities of the key Member States (UK, France, Germany and Italy) involved in research into hydrogen and fuel cells are quite similar to those of the EC.

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* European countries are focusing on the development of hydrogen production and hydrogen storage technologies. Within the hydrogen storage technologies, storage in metal hydrides is a key research area in Europe, as is development of a hydrogen infrastructure.

* UK: Research in the field of hydrogen focuses on developing hydrogen production technologies and metal hydrides storage technologies

* Italy: Key research areas in the field of hydrogen include hydrogen production from fossil fuels and storage in metal hydrides

* France: Hydrogen research focuses on developing hydrogen production technology and new materials for hydrogen storage

* The Netherlands: Most hydrogen research focuses on hydrogen production, there is also funding for hydrogen usage and the development of hydrogen storage technologies

* Switzerland: Hydrogen production (solar thermal and photoelectric water splitting are the key strengths) and hydrogen storage are the principal research areas

* Spain: Focus areas include production of hydrogen (from renewables, nuclear or fossil fuels) and hydrogen storage.

Fuel Cells

The broad goals of research are to reduce costs and increase the durability and reliability of fuel cells in order to encourage their commercialisation. However, different European countries are researching different fuel cell technologies, depending on their competences and the level of interest of companies in the technology: for instance, in Germany, numerous technology companies (such as Vaillant and Ballard for PEM and MTU for MCFCs) and automotive companies (such as Opel, Daimler-Chrysler, etc.) are working on the development of fuel cells.

* UK: Focus on SOFC and PEM technologies

* France: Development of PEM fuel cells (nearly 80% of the fuel cells funding)

* Italy: PEM and molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) technologies

* Germany: All different fuel cell technologies for all key applications: automotive, stationary and mobile. There is also on-going research in the field of fuel cell and hydrogen components in various European countries

* Netherlands: Strong focus on PEM and SOFC technologies

* Switzerland: PEM fuel cells and SOFC

* Spain: PEM fuel cells and the development of high-temperature fuel cells (SOFCs and MCFCs).

There is considerable research across Europe on cross-cutting issues such as:

* Safety

* Codes and standards

* Raising awareness and acceptance of the hydrogen and fuel cell technologies.

An important project in Germany in the field of hydrogen and fuel cell research is the Clean Energy Partnership launched in June 2002. The German Federal Government's "Sustainable Energy Strategy for Germany" has invested a total of euros 33 M in this project, which can be considered a "lighthouse" project as it involves large-scale demonstration of fuel cell-powered cars, facilitates technology improvement and infrastructure development and helps to increase public awareness and acceptance of the technology.

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In Germany, the Clean Energy Partnership12 is aiming to develop hydrogen and fuel cell technologies along the same lines as the CUTE project. Key vehicle manufacturers - BMW, Daimler Chrysler, Ford and GM/Opel - are collaborating with companies like Aral, Linde, Hydro, TOTAL, Hydro Berlin Public transport (BVG) and Vattenfall to demonstrate the operation of 16 hydrogen-powered passenger cars and a hydrogen filling station. The demonstration project, launched in November 2004, is expected to continue for a period of five years.

The aims of the project are to:

* Show the system viability of a range of readily developed technologies.

* Test the viability of commercial production and distribution of hydrogen from renewable energy at a commercial filling station in daily operation.

* Achieve rapid hydrogen refuelling.

* Demonstrate the everyday use of high-performance vehicles approaching series production quality.

* Optimise administrative tools and the authorisation processes involved in the build-up of a new energy infrastructure and the use of hydrogen vehicles.

The project can be considered a lighthouse project as:

* It involves large-scale demonstration of fuel cell-powered vehicles, thereby increasing public awareness.

* It promotes the development of hydrogen infrastructure (hydrogen filling station).

Though the broad goals of research are similar across Europe, Japan and the United States in terms of technology development, fuel cell commercialisation and hydrogen infrastructure development:

* The research objectives of EC-funded projects tend to be more general in nature when compared with the objectives set in the US and Japan.

* The penalty of non-achievement or delayed achievement of the project targets is not as stringent in the case of EC-funded projects as it is for the projects funded in the US and Japan.

* There is a stricter review and monitoring of the projects in the US and Japan, and there have even been instances where project funding has been discontinued when it was felt that the project was not going to meet its objectives.

At an overall level Europe, the US and Japan have specific efficiency and cost targets for development of fuel cells at different stages13. The targets set by the EC for European research in the Strategic Research Agenda are broadly in line with the targets set by the US and Japan.

The Priority Areas for Research in the field of hydrogen in the US are:

* Hydrogen Production and Delivery Techniques - Producing hydrogen from renewables and feedstock, developing cost-competitive, safe and efficient hydrogen delivery technologies.

* Hydrogen Storage Technologies - Research focuses on metal hydrides, carbon-based materials and chemical hydrogen storage.

* Safety Codes and Standards

* Infrastructure Validation, Education and System Analysis

Note: For further details of the priority areas for research in the field of hydrogen in the US, please refer to Annex I-3.

The Priority Areas for Research in the field of fuel cells in the US are:

* Transportation Fuel Cell Systems - Developing compressor/expandor technologies, thermal and water management technologies, and system analysis.

* Distributed/Stationary Systems - Developing power systems for back-up or peak shaving applications and developing high-temperature membranes for distributed generation applications.

* Subsystems and Components - Developing onboard fuel processors and improving reformer performance at start-up.

Note: For further details of the priority areas for research in the field of Fuel Cells in the US, please refer to Annex I-4.

The FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership of the DOE-EERE can be considered a "lighthouse" initiative in the US as it involves large-scale demonstration and development of fuel cell vehicles and of a hydrogen infrastructure. It will also facilitate technology development and shape future research in this field by conducting technology mapping and suggesting R&D priorities.

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In US, the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership14 is a collaborative effort between the DOE and energy companies - BP America, Chevron Corporation, Conoco Phillips, ExxonMobil Corporation, and Shell Hydrogen (US), and the US Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) partners (Daimler Chrysler Corporation, Ford Motor Company, and General Motors Corporation). The US Government's Hydrogen Fuel Initiative and the FreedomCAR Partnership (launched in 2002) aims to provide euros 1.4 billion through 2008 to develop hydrogen-powered fuel cells, hydrogen production and infrastructure technologies, and advanced automotive technologies to ensure commercialisation of fuel cell vehicles by 202015.

The aim of the partnership is to:

* Jointly conduct technology road mapping

* Determine technical requirements

* Suggest research and development (R&D) priorities

* Monitor R&D activities.

The partnership aims to ensure the development of reliable systems for future fuel cell power- trains with costs comparable to conventional internal combustion engine/automatic transmission systems.

To permit lightweight vehicle structures and systems, the goal is:

* Material and manufacturing technologies for high-volume production vehicles that enable or support the simultaneous attainment of:

> 50% reduction in weight of vehicle structure and subsystems

> Affordability, and

> Increased use of recyclable/renewable materials.

This project:

* involves large-scale demonstration of fuel cell-powered vehicles and the development of a hydrogen infrastructure

* shapes future R&D in the field of hydrogen and fuel cells by determining research requirements and suggesting priorities.

Note: For further details of the targets of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership, please refer to Annex I-5.

The Priority Areas for Research in the field of hydrogen and fuel cells in Japan are:

* Improving basic performance of fuel cells - the bulk of the funding is devoted to PEM fuel cells development. High-temperature fuel cells technology, gas refining technology for fuel cells and high throughput hydrogen separation membrane for high- temperature operation are also being researched.

* Researching hydrogen technologies - research on improving hydrogen production and transportation efficiency, developing hydrogen storage materials, developing hydrogen components and analysing hydrogen infrastructure in terms of safety.

* Gaining public acceptance.

* Developing codes, regulations and standards for hydrogen and fuel cells.

Note: For further details of the key commercialisation targets for fuel cells in Japan, please refer to Annex I-6.

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JHFC is a key demonstration project in the field of hydrogen and fuel cells in Japan. This project involves large-scale demonstration of fuel cell vehicles and the development of a hydrogen fuelling infrastructure that will help in facilitating technology development of fuel cells and integration of hydrogen infrastructure within the existing infrastructure.

JHFC 16 (hydrogen and fuel cell demonstration project) is the first extensive fuel cell demonstration programme in Japan, comprising the fuel cell demonstration programme itself and a demonstration study of hydrogen fuelling facilities for fuel cell vehicles. The project, launched in 2002, ran through to 2005. Annual funding for the project was about euros18M (2002).

In 2003 fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) from eight car manufacturers and fuel cell buses for commercial routes participated in trial runs on highways. Highway performance data such as driveability, reliability, environmental characteristics, fuel consumption, etc., and hydrogen station usage data were obtained for evaluation.

Nine hydrogen stations were equipped for desulfurised gasoline reforming, naphtha reforming, LPG reforming, liquid hydrogen storage, methanol reforming, high-pressure hydrogen storage, lye electrolysis, petroleum reforming, and city gas reforming. These stations were operated and evaluated, using them for the FCVs that participated in the project. The facilities for producing liquid hydrogen were designed in 2002.

The key results of the project were:

* Determination of energy-saving effects (CO2 emissions reduction and efficiency) achieved by FCVs and hydrogen stations.

* Determination of environmental (non-CO2) load reduction effects achieved by FCVs and hydrogen stations.

* Data acquisition for preparing specifications, regulations and standards concerning the safety of FCVs and hydrogen stations.

* Activities for familiarising the general public with FCVs and hydrogen stations.

* Resolution of problems involved in the introduction of FCVs and hydrogen stations.

* Efficient recovery of hydrogen from by-product gas, and development and verification of an efficient liquefaction technique.

The project:

* Involves large-scale demonstration of fuel cell-powered vehicles thereby increasing public awareness.

* Involves development of a hydrogen fuelling infrastructure helps to integrate this with the existing infrastructure.

China17 is an emerging country in the field of fuel cell and hydrogen research. The main focus of research is the development of PEM fuel cells for automotive applications and the development of hydrogen production and storage technologies. Research is also being carried out by different research institutes in the field of direct methanol fuel cells and SOFCs, also the development of hydrogen turbines and hydrogen fuel cell and hybrid power systems. During the 10th five-year plan (2001-2005), China's Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) approved an euros 82.4 M R&D programme to develop advanced hybrid electric-drive and fuel cell vehicles18. The government aims to support the Chinese auto industry through this programme by promoting research in the field of PEM fuel cells for automotive (mostly bus) applications and hydrogen production and storage technologies. There is also some research in the field of direct methanol fuel cells, SOFCs and MCFCs. There is another MOST programme (the 973 programme launched in March 1997) that promotes basic research in the field of hydrogen storage materials, fuel cell membranes and catalysts. Funding for this programme is euros 2.8M.

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Funding for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research
European Commission-Funded Research

EC-funded research in the field of hydrogen and fuel cells is dominated by basic research for the development of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and systems. All the major technologies and applications are covered, at least to some extent, in FP5 and FP6: the technology is relatively underdeveloped and a lot of research (both basic and applied) is still required before the best technologies can be clearly assessed. Demonstration projects, like the Virtual Power Plant and the CUTE project, have helped research, demonstrate and improve public awareness of the technology.

Funding is relatively evenly split between hydrogen and fuel cell research in FP6. This is a significant shift from

FP5 where fuel cell research received the bulk of the funding. From the information available to date, no projects have been funded in the field of fuel cell processors and MCFC under FP6. Hydrogen and fuel cell technologies have received around euros 125.7M and euros 153.9M respectively in funding under FP6 (This includes funding from the different departments of the EC like DG Research, DG TREN etc. However some projects related to socio-economic aspects have been excluded. Those projects are covered under chapter 12 of this report - Socio-Economic Research).

The two areas together have received nearly half of the total funding given to the NNE technologies to date by the EC under FP6. This reflects the importance of these technologies in achieving the energy goals of the future.

Within fuel cells, the bulk of the funding is allocated to research for PEMFC technology and transportation applications. Another technology area receiving a significant amount of funding is SOFC. The high level of funding to the PEMFC and fuel cell research for automotive applications is a reflection of the level of interest of European power and automotive companies in this technology. The combined funding to these is over 75% of the total EC funding for fuel cells. In comparison, Japan also devotes approximately 65% of its funding on fuel cells to PEM technology19.

Note: For further details of EC funding for fuel cell technologies in FP5 and FP6, please refer to Annex I-7.

Research in the field of hydrogen is focused on development of hydrogen production technologies. Within this technology sub-area, most of the research is focused on the production of hydrogen from renewables. There is also research on the production of hydrogen from thermochemical water splitting (an area that was totally ignored in FP5) and hydrogen storage technologies, with the focus on development of metal hydrides and developing storage technologies for automotive applications. Some funding is also available for the development of codes and standards.

Note: For further details of EC funding for hydrogen technologies in FP5 and FP6, please refer to Annex I-8.

Research Funded at EU Country Level

Key countries researching hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in Europe are Germany, the UK, Italy and France.

Specific funding information for the key Member States was not always available at the time of writing: however, in order to give an order of magnitude, one can generally consider that if funding from the EC in the hydrogen and fuel cell field represents roughly 20% of total European funding, then the four key countries involved in fuel cells and hydrogen research at European level represent around 57% of total EU funding.

Of the four key European countries20, Germany presents the highest government and state funding level, evaluated at euros 72 M in 200521. France comes second with euros 60 M in 2005 (euros 40 M for fuel cells and euros 20 M for hydrogen technologies). This represents a significant increase from 1999 figures, when the combined funding for hydrogen and fuel cells technologies was around euros 10 M. The UK and Italy contribute approximately the same annual amount with some euros 30 M in funding.

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Research Funded at Third Country Level

The US overall22 level of funding for RTD in hydrogen and fuel cells was euros 195.9 M in 2004, euros 239.2 M in 2005 and euros242.1M in 200623. The level of funding increased in 2005 and 2006, showing the high emphasis placed on research in these RTD fields. Within hydrogen, most of the funding went to research into production and delivery R&D and storage. Within fuel cells, the funding is mainly allocated to two key research areas: stack component R&D and technology validation. Transportation applications get more than one-third of the total funding for fuel cells and hydrogen in the US Over euros 83 M was appropriated for research into the development of fuel cell vehicles in 2006.

In Japan the level of funding for fuel cells and hydrogen by METI/NEDO was slightly higher than that of the US with euros254.9M (2005). The level of funding has been increasing over the last few years. In 2004, METI spent euros 236.9 M on fuel cell research, with the bulk of the funding going to PEM technology and the remainder devoted to the development of high- temperature fuel cell technology. In the field of hydrogen research, funding is concentrated on NEDO's "Development Of Basic Technology For The Safe Use Of Hydrogen" project, launched in 2003 and going through to 2007. Funding for this project was increased from euros 32.4 M in 2003 to euros 43.4 M in 2004.

Note: For further details of funding for hydrogen and fuel cell RTD across Europe, the US and Japan, please refer to Annex I.9.

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Evaluation and Conclusions
Technology focus


In the field of fuel cells, the focus of research across Japan, Europe and the US is on the development of PEM fuel cells technology and on automotive applications, although there is also substantial funding in the US in the area of fuel cell component development, including stacks and fuel processors. SOFC and MCFC technologies are also researched, although to a relatively limited extent in each of these' regions. In Germany, one of the key countries researching fuel cells in Europe, over 50% of funding is on PEM fuel cells technology. The rest of fuel cell funding is almost evenly split between MCFC and SOFC research. In France, the bulk of funding (around 80%) is focused on PEM fuel cells-related research, with the remaining funding devoted to high-temperature fuel cells. There is also research into materials and components - funding for this is included within the technology areas. In the UK, the key areas of research are PEM and solid oxide fuel cells: there is also substantial research on developing fuel cell materials and components.

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In the field of hydrogen, the research conducted by the EC focuses on development of hydrogen production and storage technologies, also developing safety regulations and setting up networks and pathways to promote collaborative research and knowledge sharing. In the US also, similarly the focus is on developing hydrogen production and storage technologies to meet the objectives of producing hydrogen from diverse resources (including renewables) and developing lightweight, low-cost and efficient hydrogen storage systems. Issues such as safety of hydrogen and education and awareness of the technology are not accorded as much funding as in the EC.

France is focusing in particular on research into high-temperature hydrogen production by electrolysis or thermo-chemical cycles. There is also substantial funding to develop hydrogen infrastructure. Funding for hydrogen storage includes the development of onboard storage for automotive applications. In the UK, the bulk of research focuses on improving hydrogen production and storage technologies.

In Japan, the programme entitled "Development Of Basic Technology For The Safe Use Of Hydrogen" aims to research issues such as safety of hydrogen in practical use, the development of a hydrogen infrastructure, and the development of high-efficiency and low-cost hydrogen technologies. The EC tends to cover the topic of hydrogen infrastructure development, together with the research of different hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, in big demonstration projects such as CUTE. As hydrogen and fuel cells near commercialisation, it would be advisable to increase the focus on issues such as development of codes and standards and infrastructure to ensure speedy market introduction and adoption of these technologies.


The combined funding for hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in Europe is greater than that in the US and Japan. The public funding in Europe is estimated to be around euros 350 M per year, while that in the US and Japan is only around euros240M and euros255M per year respectively. However, these figures are only for public funding, so no conclusions should be drawn from this alone. It is widely believed that private funding in the US and Japan is substantial and could exceed that in Europe.

The European Commission, Germany, UK, France and Italy all provide substantial amounts of funding for these technologies. The level of funding for hydrogen and fuel cells has been increasing in the last few years across Europe, the US and Japan, and this trend is likely to continue in the coming years. Across the world, the bulk of funding is devoted to the development of PEM fuel cells, while also directed at MCFC and SOFC technologies for stationary applications. In the hydrogen field, funding is for long-term research into production and storage technologies. Japan also devotes a large proportion of its budget to the development of a hydrogen infrastructure, while the EC spends over 25% of its budget on developing networks and pathways and on hydrogen end-use.

Research and Technology Development

Apart from the bilateral and multilateral agreements, IPHE and IEA are the main platforms where the key stakeholders come together to share information on status and progress of research and knowledge in their respective regions. It is felt that these fora could play a vital role in promoting collaborative research to tackle the common barriers hampering the development and commercialisation of fuel cells. The IEA's hydrogen coordination group aims to review each member country's national R&D programmes to identify priorities and gaps and to find areas where collaboration could take place.

In terms of research and development, IEA's hydrogen-related research is presently focused on various production technologies, solid and liquid hydrogen storage materials, safety aspects and developing integrated systems. In the field of fuel cells, IEA's research aims to develop MCFCs, PEMFCs and SOFCs, also to assess the commercial deployment of fuel cells in various applications - transportation, stationary and portable.

Developing safety codes and standards is an important area where common collaborative research can take place.


[9] HyNet 2004: HyNet - Towards a European Hydrogen Energy Roadmap

[10] IPHE - International Partnership for the Hydrogen Economy

[11] EC 2003b: European Hydrogen and Fuel cells projects 1999-2002

[12] http://www.cep-berlin.de

[13] METI (2003): Japan's Approach to Commercialisation of Fuel Cell / Hydrogen Technology, DOE 2005: Multi-Year Research, Development, and Demonstration Plan

[14] http://www.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/about/partnerships/freedomcar/index.shtml

[15] White House Press Release - http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2005/05/20050518-4.html

[16] http://www.jhfc.jp

[17] IEA 2005: Issues and Opportunities for International Collaboration in Energy Science and Technology: The Chinese Perspective, IEA AEGSET Workshop

[18] FUEL CELL TODAY 2003: Fuel Cells in China - A Survey of current Developments, FUEL CELL TODAY

[19] British Embassy 2003: Fuel Cell Development in Japan; An Outline of Public and Private Sector Activities

[20] Funding figures for UK, France and Italy refer to government funding and have been compiled on the basis of primary research in these countries. They are based on the most recent annual data available at the time of writing the report.

[21] Funding figures for Germany are based on the estimates of "Fuel Cells in Germany - A survey of current developments, 18 June 2003 (FUEL CELL TODAY)". It estimates annual funding for hydrogen and fuel cells in Germany (including central and state governments and EC funding) to be around euros 80-90 M per year. The figure for Germany has then been adjusted on the assumption that the EU contribution represents 20% of funding.

[22] Refer to Annex I.9 - Notes on funding information

[23] This includes funding by EERE basic energy sciences and transportation offices of US-DOE. It also includes the funding for the FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies programme. It does not include funding by the fossil fuels and nuclear energy offices of the DoE and the funding by the US Dept. of Defence

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