Implementation of central concepts

AuthorPavlou, Vera
3 Implementation of central concepts
3.1 General (legal) context
3.1.1 Surveys on the definition, implementation and limit s of central concepts of gender
equality law
In March 2018, the Committee on Gender Equality in Employment and Vocational Training
of the Ministry of Labour published the study Cypriot law and case law: Sexual harassment
and the protection of motherhood.2 The study gives an ove rview of EU and domestic
legislation on sexual harassment at work and the protection of motherhood. The study
aims to raise awareness and disseminate information to inter ested parties and the public
but does not discus s any limits of the legal definitions or problems with the practical
implementation of sex equality concepts in national law.
3.1.2 Other issues
The notions of multiple and intersectional discrimination have yet to be introduced in legal
discourse in Cyprus. The same goes for the specific problems of transgender, intersex and
non-binary persons. Indirect sex discrimination and positive action measures, while
formally included in legal instruments, have not yet been sufficiently discussed by the
3.1.3 General overview of national acts
Law 205(I)/2002 on equal treatment between men and women in employment and
vocational training implements Directive 2006/54/EC.
3.1.4 Political and societal debate and pending legislative proposals
In 2017, the Ministry of Justice prepared a legislative proposal on l egal gend er id entity
recognition;3 two years later, the legislation is still pending in the House of
Representatives. This legislation, once approved, will in troduce the right to modify one’s
name and sex in identity documents (national ID cards, passports and other documents)
so th at they correspond to that person’s gender identity. Medical gender reassignment
procedures will not be a prerequisite to exercise the right.
3.2 Sex/gender/transgender
3.2.1 Definition of ‘gender’ and ‘sex’
The notions of gender and sex are not defined in national legislation. The difference
between the notions of ‘gender’ and ‘sex’ are discussed in scholarly and public debates in
Cyprus.4 In these discussions sex ( ) is understood to encompass the
biological features used to distinguish between men and women, while gender (
) refers to socially constructed differences between men and women that are
2 Committee on Gender Equality in Employment and Vocational Training (2018), Cypriot law and case law:
sexual harassment and the protection of motherhood, (   :   
      ), March 2018, available at$file/KYRPIAKH
3 In Greek:    .
4 For example, Pilavaki, A. (Committee on Gender Equality in Employment and Vocational Training) (2010),
The gender dimension of the labour market in Cyprus and in Europe’, (    
     ), November 2010.

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