Introduction

AuthorSabatauskait?, Birut?
Pages14-14
14
INTRODUCTION
The national legal system
The Republic of Lithuania is a unitary state. The Constitution of the Republic of
Lithuania21 was adopted by referendum on 25 October 1992 and entered into force on 2
November 1992. Lithuania is party to a number of international agreements that
guarantee protection against discrimination on various grounds. Article 138(3) of the
Constitution states that international agreements that have been ratified by the
Parliament form a constituent part of the legal system. According to the Law on
International Agreements, if an international agreement that has been ratified a nd
enforced by the Republic of Lithu ania establishes norms other than those established by
the laws of the Republic of Lithuania or by other legal acts existing or coming into force
after the date of the entry into force of the international agreement, t he provisions of the
international agreement shall apply.
The Constitution stipulates that constitutional review in Lithuania is exercised by the
Constitutional Court of the Republic of Lithuania. It ensures the supremac y of the
Constitution within the legal system, as well as constitutional just ice by deciding whether
laws and other legal acts adopted by Parliament are in conformity with the Constitution
and whether the acts adopted by the President or t he Government are in compliance with
the Constitution and the law.
The right to file a petition with the Constitutional Court concern ing the constitutionality of
a legal act is vest ed in the Government, groups consisting of at least one fifth of all
members of the Seimas (Parliament), the courts and the Presi dent of Lithuania. The right
for individuals to lodge petitions with the Constitutional Court was granted in 2019.22
List of main legislation tran sposing and implementing the direct ives
The main law designed to implement the anti-discrimination directives is:
- The Law on Equal Treatment (LET).23 Date of adoption: 18.11.2003. Grounds
covered: gender, race, nationality, citizenship, language, origin, social status,
belief, convictions or views, age, sexual orientation, disability, ethnic origin and
religion. The material scope of the law covers employment, access to goods or
services and education.
In addition, a number of employment provisions from the La w on Equal Treatment were
copied into the Labour Code. Date of adoption: 14.06.2016.24
21 Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublikos Konstitucija), 1992, No. 33-1014, available in
English at: http://www3.lrs.lt/home/Konstitucija/Co nstitution.htm.
22 Law amending Articles 106 and 107 of the Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania, 21 M arch 2019, No.
XIII-2004, that came into force on 1 September 2019, available in English at:
https://e-seimas.lrs.lt/portal/legalA ct/lt/TAD/786eb162508a11e98b c2ba0c0453c004?jfwid=pffih3y6p.
23 Law on Equal Treatment (Lietuvos Respublikos Lygi galimybi statymas), 2003, No. 114-5115, entry into
force 01.01.2005; latest amendments: 11.12.2018, available in Lithuanian at: https://www.e -
tar.lt/portal/lt/legalAct/TAR.0CC6CB2A9E42/asr.
24 Labour Code (Darbo kodekso patvirtinimo, sigaliojimo ir gyvendinimo statymas. Darbo Kodeksas), 2016,
No. XII-2603, entry into force: 01.07.2017; latest amendments: 20.12.2018, available in Lithuanian at:
https://www.e-tar.lt/portal/lt/legalAct/f 6d686707e7011e6b969d7ae07280e89 /asr.

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