AuthorAnu Laas
1 Introduction
1.1 Basic structure of the national legal system
Estonia belongs to the Continental European legal system, and is basically divided in to
private and public law. The Parliament (Riigikogu) is the h ighest legislative body and
consists of 101 members elected for a term of four years. In 2019, the Centre Party, Social
Democrats and conservative Pro Patria Party formed a coalition Government.1
Ministries make l egislative proposals, draft laws and hold consultati ons, i.e. they ask
concerned interest groups and public representatives for thei r opinions and proposals.2 A
regulatory imp act an alysis and assessment is performed, and an y draft law proposal is
presented to all ministries and social partners before a draft law is produced. It is mainly
the Ministry of Social Affairs that drafts equality legislation.
The Government Office of Estonia and its European Union secretariat is the central
coordination unit of Estonia’s European Union policy.
The Gender Equality and E qual Treatment Commissioner is an independent and impartial
gender equality body that monitors compliance with the requirements of the Gender
Equality Act (GEA) and the Equal Treatment Act (ETA). The Commissioner gives advice
and can issue non-binding written opinions.
1.2 List of main legislation transposing and implementing the directives
Civil Service Act (CSA, Avaliku teenistuse seadus);3
Equal Treatment Act (ETA, Võrdse kohtlemise seadus);4
Employment Contracts Act (ECA, Töölepingu seadus);5
Family Benefits Act (FBA, Perehüvitiste seadus);6
Family Law Act (FLA, Perekonnaseadus);7
Gender Equality Act (GEA, Soolise võrdõiguslikkuse seadus); 8
Health Insurance Act (HIA, Ravikindlustuse seadus);9
Insurance Activities Act (IAA, Kindlustustegevuse seadus);10
Law of Obligations Act (LOA, Võlaõigusseadus);11
Occupational Health and Safety Act (OHSA, Töötervishoiu ja tööohu tuse seadus);12
Penal Code (PC, Karistusseadustik);13
Registered Partnership Act (RPA, Kooseluseadus);14
Social Welfare Act (SWA, Sotsiaalhoolekande seadus);15
State Pension Insurance Act (SPIA, Riikliku pensionikindlustuse seadus);16
The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariigi põhiseadu s);17
1 Basic principles of the Government coalition of the Estonian Centre Party, the Conservative People’s Party
of Estonia, and Isamaa for 20192023,
2 Good Practice of Engagement,
3 RT I, 13.03.2019, 37,
4 RT I, 26.04.2017, 9,
5 RT I, 13.03.2019, 173,
6 RT I, 31.10.2019, 7,
7 RT I, 09.05.2017, 29,
8 RT I, 10.01.2019, 19,
9 RT I, 13.03.2019, 135,
10 RT I, 04.12.2019, 8,
11 RT I, 08.01.2020,
12 RT I, 13.03.2019, 177,
13 RT I, 28.02.2020, 5,
14 RT I, 16.10.2014, 1,
15 RT I, 09.04.2020, 20,
16 RT I, 28.11.2019, 2,
17 RT I, 15.05.2015, 2,

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