Marxism and Karl Popper's criticism about its prediction with scientific character

AuthorFjolentina Kllogjeri
PositionAleksandër Xhuvani' University, Elbasan
Vol. 4 No.3
January, 2019
Balkan Journal of Interdisciplinary Research
IIPCCL Publishing, Graz-Austria
ISSN 2410-759X
Acces online at
Marxism and Karl Popper’s criticism about its prediction with scienti c
PhD (C.) Fjolentina Kllogjeri
"Aleksandër Xhuvani" University, Elbasan
The Marxist interpretation of history is known di erently as 'historical materialism'1 or as a
'materialistic understanding' of history. Two de nitions that are directly related to the names
of Karl Marks and Frederik Engels. History, on the basis of this understanding, is related with
class struggle, a concept that derives from Hegel's philosophical understanding of history.
Engels a ributes to Hegel's greatest merit the fact that "he introduced for the rst time the
entire natural, historical and spiritual world as a process, in motion, in change, in constant
transformation and development, and endeavored to discover the internal connection of this
movement and this development."2
The materialist meaning of history
Historical materialism is essentially an a empt to explain the origins and development
of human society based on the materialistic perspective. Dealing with the general laws
of social development in the historical course, he only points out the role of material
forces in the formation and evolution of human societies. Marx's understanding of
the materialistic concept of history is contrary to the idealistic concept of history, and
he even tried to put this concept into a scienti c understanding. He was stimulated
from the theory of evolution created by Charles Darwin who explained the evolution
of the species through the process of natural selection. The meaning he gave to the
world as a whole and to things and phenomena that compose it, which comes as
a result of its uninterrupted movement and development, by merging dialectics
with materialism and by linking it to nature and society, Marx and Engels created
materialistic dialectics. Marx predicts the collapse of many of the theories of history
which they consider to be important in determining the course of history and human
destiny, free consciousness, people's will, their ideas, etc. Marks says that human
societies are developed in accordance with several laws that are independent of
people's desires and wills. He argues that the development of society can be seen as
a result of the social production process where people come together and enter into
de ned relationships which he considers indispensable and independent of their will
and desires. At this point, he sees the decisive role of work, as in human origins from
the ape, as well as in the evolution of social forms. So Karl Marx saw the Darwinian
theory of developing the most complex forms of living by the simplest organisms, in
parallelism with the development of the society towards complex systems.
1 Historical materialism sums up itself: conscience problems, where matter is considered primary and
consciousness is secondary; the theory of recognition, that the world can be recognized; and the categories
and laws of dialectics (the law of qualitative changes, the law of denial, the law of unity and the law of the
existence of opposites).
2 Marks, Karl ; Engels, Frederik, “Vepra të zgjedhura”, Vëllim II, 1975, pg 136.

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