Positive action (article 5 Directive 2000/43, article 7 Directive 2000/78)

AuthorChiara Favilli
5 POSITIVE ACTION (Article 5 Directive 2000/43, Article 7 Directive 2000/78)
a) Scope for positive action measures
In Italy, positive acti on is permitted in national law in respect of racial or ethnic origin,
according to Article 5 of Legislative Decree 215/2003. Moreover, according to Article
7(2)(c) of the same Decree, the tasks of UNAR, the equality body, include promoting the
adoption of positive actions by private parties.
Relevant provisions related to disability, in pa rticular those concerning employment, have
come into force under Law 68/1999, which was most recently amended in 2015.78
It is in any event possible to argue that the adoption of positive actions is in principle
legitimate under the Italian Constitution in the light of the principle of substantive equality
in Article 3(2).
Race and ethnic origin, disability, national origin and sexual orientatio n
Specific projects have been funded by UNAR and labelled as positive actions. In particular,
special events are promoted during Anti-Racism Week. However, t hese activities appear
to be aimed more at raising awareness than at the implementation of positive actions. The
same applies to projects which are funded by UNAR to promote a culture of diversity in the
workplace. No m easure of positive action exists at the national level in r elation to the
Roma. Specific measures that are aimed at enhancing the integration of Roma groups are
promoted generally through the funding of projects of limited duration. Despite the positive
results of some of these projects, they still appear to b e very marginal in the context of
the ove rall picture of segregation and racis m perpetrated against the Roma population.
Moreover, th ey are addressed to ‘nomad groups’ or people living in the camps, without
taking into account the specific characteristics of Roma, Sinti and Traveller minorities who
do not live in a camp or who are sedentary. 79 An Italian national strategy was adopted on
28 February 2012, implementing European Commission Communication COM(2011)173.80
Unfortunately, the strategy has not brought about any relevant results, in particular in
housing. One o f the reasons for this is the absence of activity promoted by UNAR, which
had been identified as the nat ional focal point. This ma y be due to t he more general
inability of UNAR to translate principles into concrete actions. The strategy covers four
pillars: housing, healthcare, educ ation and employment. However, the national strategy
provides incentives and promotes coordinat ion without setting binding targets to be met
by the regions. At national level, the Government could promote a law setting a minim um
level of services, including housing, to be pr ovided, but no su ch law is on the agenda of
any political party.
In r elation to the grounds covered b y the directives, positive action app lies in practice,
strictly speaking, only to p eople with disabilities on the basis of a complex set of rules
contained in Law 68/1999. It should be noted that the aim of this Law is to amend and
78 Law of 12 March 1999, on provisions on the right to work of persons with disability (Norme per il diritto al
lavoro dei disabili), No. 69, available at: http://www.normattiva.it/uri-res/N2Ls?urn:nir:stato:legge:1999-
03-12;68!vig. Amended by Legislative Decree of 14 September 2015, on simplification of procedures and
duties upon citizens and companies (Disposizioni di razionalizzazione e semplificazione delle procedure e
degli adempimenti a carico di cittadini e imprese e altre disposizioni in materia di rapporto di lavoro e pari
opportunità, in attuazione della legge 10 dicembre 2014, n. 183), No. 151, available at:
79 See, for instance, the inquiry undertaken by the Italian Senate on the situation of Roma, Sinti and
Travellers. The final report stresses the lack of reliable data to enable a better understanding of the
situation of the groups considered and the need to provide better data collection and analysis tools.
80 UNAR, National Strategy for the inclusion of Roma, Sinti and Travellers 2012-2020 (Strategia nazionale
d’inclusione dei Rom, dei Sinti, e dei Caminanti 2012/2020), available at:

To continue reading

Request your trial

VLEX uses login cookies to provide you with a better browsing experience. If you click on 'Accept' or continue browsing this site we consider that you accept our cookie policy. ACCEPT