Protection against unauthorised entry and ballistic attacks

AuthorVasilis Karlos - Martin Larcher
5!Protection against unauthorised entry and ballistic attacks
In modern society, protecting a facility from the unauthorised entry of persons with malicious intent can be
accomplished by a combination of physical security systems and digital technologies. New digital capabilities
provide innovative tools to efficiently respond to the challenges that arise when trying to setup and maintain a
security perimeter around a valuable asset. Integrating video surveillance and other digital security systems in
a multi-layered approach for securing a building’s perimeter may result in a substantial increase in the
efficiency of deterring, detecting and responding to threats. Several technologies are available nowadays that
can have a supplementary role to the physical security measures, many of which have been presented in
previous chapters. These technologies include, but are not limited to, video surveillance, intrusion detection,
access control, sound detection, CBRN (chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear) sensors and video
Digital technologies provide the opportunity to retrieve immense amount of data in real time which, if analysed
properly, can produce sense-making information facilitating informed and timely decisions. The derived data
may significantly improve threat detection and communication, enhancing the coordination and collaboration
among various authorities. A crucial role in taking full advantage of the potential of each digital security system
plays the installed software and its efficiency. Accurate detection, precise information, real-time reaction,
minimal glitches and false alarm rate depend on the software technology and its adaptability to the existing
environment. The simultaneous use of various security systems and their harmonic cooperation requires an
effective and immediate sharing of data, which can be extremely complex due to compatibility issues.
Successful management of the different employed systems may be accomplished by using robust data
processing platforms and skilled professionals that are able to handle the flux of incoming information, which
in some cases may also be contradicting. Security systems are only a small integrated part of a well-planed
security scheme and are an invaluable tool in supporting decision makers in emergency cases.
5.2!Physical protection measures
Addressing a site’s vulnerabilities through the intr oduction of physical protective measures is a key tool for
reducing the risk of unauthorised people access and ballistic threats. Perimeter security can be realized through
different design strategies, that span from the installation of specialized barriers to the redesign of the
surrounding landscape in a security-by-design concept. The previous chapter provided an extensive summary
of solutions that are used for blocking vehicular access and may also be employed for denying the access to
potential pedes trian intruders. Clearly, some of the proposed solutions (e.g. bollards, road bl ockers) are not
effective against hostile pedestrian attacks, while others (e.g. fences and gates) can deter and delay intruders
from gaining access to the facility. This aspect demonstrates that the selection and the design of the barrier
system needs to correspond to the assessed threat. Moreover, the selected protection measures need to be in
line with the architectural and landscaping features of the asset’s surrounding environment, as they are its first
visible aspects and define its identity.
A typical physical perimeter protection system for denying pedestrian access consists of two main elements;
the surrounding fence and the control gates, where people (and usually vehicles) are screened before entering
the site. Properly designed fences and dense vegetation can deter and delay intrusion, while they could be
equipped with concealed sensors and warning systems to further enhance the protection level, as will be
described in the next s ections. Certified anti-ram fences are only required if hostile vehicle threats are also
deemed as probable, since the cost of crash-rated systems is much higher.
The building’s exterior may also be secured to protect against unauthorised entrance in case of absence of a
surrounding fence or if such fence is breached. This means that secure locks need to be installed in the doors
that lead outside the building, though should easily open in case of an emergency evacuation. Moreover, barriers
may be applied to man-sized openings, while doors and facades resistant to manual attacks and bullet resistant
glazing may be introduced, as shown in Tables 7 and 8. Section 3.8.2 provided additional advice on the design
of access control zones against blast loads. Additional films may also be applied to external windows and doors
to provide protection against eavesdropping as certain devices can capture conversations from a great distance.
Restricting the entry through external doors and windows channel s the access to specialized areas, where
screening procedures are enforced. These areas need to be designed to address ballistic threats through the
introduction of bullet proof glazing and contain intruders by blocking their access to the core of the building.

To continue reading

Request your trial

VLEX uses login cookies to provide you with a better browsing experience. If you click on 'Accept' or continue browsing this site we consider that you accept our cookie policy. ACCEPT