A relação entre União Europeia e a questão prioritária de constitucionalidade do direito francês

Autor:Paula Wojcikiewicz Almeida
Páginas:165-187
RESUMO

O modelo de controle de constitucionalidade francês serviu por anos como exemplo do único sistema no qual o exame de compatibilidade entre normas infraconstitucionais e o texto da Constituição era realizado pelo Conselho Constitucional — órgão político — de maneira preventiva. Como resultado da falta de proteção dos direitos e liberdades constitucionais, a Constituição Francesa de 1958 foi... (ver resumo completo)

 
TRECHO GRÁTIS
A RELAÇÃO ENTRE UNIÃO EUROPEIA
E A QUESTÃO PRIORITÁRIA DE CONSTITUCIONALIDADE
DO DIREITO FRANCÊS
LÍVIA DA SILVA FERREIRA1*
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3A"KdA" X+/%.9:$"'-2+&"%$" /.*$+A"Z&+,:$" $+-?-)/': “Sur le plan juridique, le contrôle de con*
ventionnalité est exactement de même nature qu’un contrôle de constitutionnalité par voie
d’exception. Le raisonnementtenu par un juge français pour écarter l’application d’une loi
contraire auxstipulations d’un traité, même antérieur, est exactement le même que leraison*
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Sur le plan pratique, les deux types de contrôle ont une portée identique. En effet, sauf
peut*être en matière sociale, la Convention européenne des droits de l’homme englobe et
même dépasse le catalogue des droits fondamentaux tel qu’il résulte, en France, de la Cons*
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par les lois de la république auxquels il renvoie.
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rendues en matière de conventionnalité n’ont que l’autorité relative de la chose jugée, elles
font jurisprudence et aboutissent, en pratique, à une paralysie des lois jugées contraires à
la Convention européenne des droits de l’homme. L’expérience des pays qui, comme les
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31 décembre 1979 relative à l’interruption volontaire de la grossesse./S-,3$)@2&'"k/
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de constitutionnalité, la CJUE de toute question préjudicielle
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juridictionnelle provisoire des droits conférés par l’ordre juridi*
que de l’Union, et
de laisser inappliquée, à l’issue d’une telle procédure incidente,
la disposition législative nationale en cause si elles la jugent
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Attendu que le juge national chargé d’appliquer, dans le cadre
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d’assurer le plein effet de ces normes en laissant au besoin inappli*
quée, de sa propre autorité, toute disposition contraire de la législa*
tion nationale, même postérieure, sans qu’il ait à demander ou à atten*
dre l’élimination préalable de celle ci par voie législative ou par tout
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Attendu que, dans l’hypothèse particulière où le juge est saisi
d’une question portant à la fois sur la constitutionnalité et la conven*
tionnalité d’une disposition législative, il lui appartient de mettre en
oeuvre, le cas échéant, les mesures provisoires ou conservatoires pro*
pres à assurer la protection juridictionnelle des droits conférés par
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cette exigence, comme c’est le cas de la Cour de cassation, devant
laquelle la procédure ne permet pas de recourir à de telles mesures,
le juge doit se prononcer sur la conformité de la disposition critiquée
au regard du droit de l’Union en laissant alors inappliquées les dispo*
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Attendu, deuxièmement, que la Cour de justice de l’Union euro*
péenne a également dit pour droit que l’article 67, paragraphe 2, TFUE
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lement européen et du Conseil, du 15 mars 2006, établissant un code
communautaire relatif au régime de franchissement des frontières par
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tion nationale conférant aux autorités de police de l’Etat membre con*
cerné la compétence de contrôler, uniquement dans une zone de 20
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entre les gouvernements des Etats de l’Union économique Benelux,
de la République fédérale d’Allemagne et de la République française
relatif à la suppression graduelle des contrôles aux frontières com*
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toute personne, indépendamment du comportement de celle*ci et des
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port et de présentation des titres et documents prévus par la loi, sans
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que l’exercice pratique de ladite compétence ne puisse pas revêtir un
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pénale n’est assorti d’aucune disposition offrant une telle garantie, il
appartient au juge des libertés et de la détention d’en tirer les consé*
quences au regard de la régularité de la procédure dont il a été saisi,
sans qu’il y ait lieu de renvoyer au Conseil constitutionnel la question
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ayant pour objet des demandes de décision préjudicielle au titre
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par décisions du 16 avril 2010, parvenues à la Cour le même jour, dans
les procédures contre
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qui instaure une procédure incidente de contrôle de constitutionnalité
des lois nationales, pour autant que le caractère prioritaire de cette
procédure a pour conséquence d’empêcher, tant avant la transmission
d’une question de constitutionnalité à la juridiction nationale chargée
d’exercer le contrôle de constitutionnalité des lois que, le cas échéant,
après la décision de cette juridiction sur ladite question, toutes les
autres juridictions nationales d’exercer leur faculté ou de satisfaire à
leur obligation de saisir la Cour de questions préjudicielles. En revan*
che, l’article 267 TFUE ne s’oppose pas à une telle législation nationale
pour autant que les autres juridictions nationales restent libres:
de saisir, à tout moment de la procédure qu’elles jugent appro*
prié, et même à l’issue de la procédure incidente de contrôle
de constitutionnalité, la Cour de toute question préjudicielle
qu’elles jugent nécessaire,
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juridictionnelle provisoire des droits conférés par l’ordre juridi*
que de l’Union, et
de laisser inappliquée, à l’issue d’une telle procédure incidente,
la disposition législative nationale en cause si elles la jugent
contraire au droit de l’Union.
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nationale en cause au principal peut être interprétée conformément à
ces exigences du droit de l’Union.
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du 15 mars 2006, établissant un code communautaire relatif au régime
de franchissement des frontières par les personnes (code frontières
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uniquement dans une zone de 20 kilomètres à partir de la frontière ter*
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le d’Allemagne et de la République française relatif à la suppression
graduelle des contrôles aux frontières communes, signée à Schengen
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damment du comportement de celle*ci et de circonstances particuliè*
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le respect des obligations de détention, de port et de présentation des
titres et des documents prévues par la loi, sans prévoir l’encadrement
nécessaire de cette compétence garantissant que l’exercice pratique
de ladite compétence ne puisse pas revêtir un effet équivalent à celui
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