Summer loggings and bird protection: On regulation and derogations

Published date01 July 2019
Date01 July 2019
Summer loggings and bird protection: On regulation and
Minna Pappila
Funding information
Suomen Akatemia, Grant/Award Number:
Forest loggings during the nesting season are increasing in Finland. The aim of this
article is to evaluate how current regulation applies to summer loggings, paying spe-
cial attention to the protection of birds. The European Union Birds Directive and
the Finnish Nature Conservation Act prohibit the deliberate killing and disturbance
of birds. Regardless, it seems that in practice none of these rules is applied to birds
and summer loggings as forestry is not considered deliberatekilling or disturbance,
even if thousands of birds are killed in summer loggings every year. European biodi-
versity targets and the principle of minimizing harms would emphasize implementing
and monitoring existing national law and soft law more actively than currently is the
Summer logging is an issue that strikes a chord with many people
who worry about nestlings. Every spring and summer there are
newspaper articles and letters to the editor about summer loggings
in Finland, and the situation seems similar in other countries with
large boreal forests.
Yet, there are economic reasons for year
round loggings. It is better for the forest industry to gather fresh
wood steadily all through the year without the need for storage.
It is also more profitable for harvester entrepreneurs to use their
expensive harvesters without breaks. The forest industry, once vital
for the Finnish economy, still is good for 20 percent of net
Summer loggings began in Finland in the 1960s, and have
become increasingly common in Southern Finland, where onethird
of loggings already take place from May to October, keeping in mind
that AprilAugust is the main breeding season for most birds. There
are some reductions in logging during the most intense nesting
months, but the figures are still relatively high.
In addition to ecological consequences, summer loggings were
the main reason for the spread of butt rot into Finnish forests in the
first place.
Butt rot is a mycosis that spreads mainly during warm
and leads to 50 million in losses for Finnish forest owners
annually. Therefore, summer loggings are less profitable for forest
owners, however, the forest industry and logging entrepreneurs
nonetheless benefit from yearround loggings. Contemporary har-
vester machines can automatically carry out butt rot prevention, but
in 25 percent of loggings this is ineffective and butt rot keeps
spreading further.
© 2019 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 9600 Garsington Road, Oxford OX4 2DQ, UK and 350 Main Street, Malden, MA 02148, USA.
KA Hobson et al, An Estimate of Nest Loss in Canada Due to Industrial Forestry Oper-
ations(2013) 8 Avian Conservation and Ecology 5. See also, e.g., J McPhee, Harvesting
Toll on Nests Raises Bird Loss Worries(Truro News, 4 January 2018) https://www.truro>.
T Tanskanen, Metsäyhtiöt innostuivat kesähakkuista Kaikki kalusto on käytössä”’ (YLE
News, 21 July 2015)>.
Metsäteollisuus ry, Metsäteollisuus Suomen kansantaloudessa(13 July 2018) https://>. The exact share of net exports in 2017
is 20.2 percent.
Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Kesähakkuutyöryhmä, Työryhmämuistio, MMM
2000:8 (2000) Annex 1; Natural Resources Institute Finland, Teollisuuspuun hakkuut
kuukausittain [Monthly Loggings of Industrial Wood](2018)
Hallituksen esitys eduskunnalle laeiksi kestävän metsätalouden määräaikaisen rahoituslain,
metsätuhojen torjunnasta annetun lain ja riistavahinkolain muuttamisesta [Government Bill
on Changing the Temporary Act on the Financing of Sustainable Forestry], HE 133/2015
vp, 4.
T Möykkynen and T Pukkala, Juurikäävän leviäminen EteläSuomen kuusikoissa ja kuusi
mäntysekametsissä mekanistisen mallin mukaan(2007) 1 Metsätieteen aikakauskirja 5, 6.
Metsäkeskus [The Finnish For est Centre], Laadukas kantokäsittely tärkeää kesä aikaisissa
harvennushakkuissa laho romahduttaa puukauppatilin(Metsä keskus, 25 January 2016)
https://www.metsakeskus .fi/uutiset/laadukas-kantokasitte ly-tarkeaa-kesaaikaisissa-harve
DOI: 10.1111/reel.12271
| RECIEL. 2019;28:210216.

To continue reading

Request your trial

VLEX uses login cookies to provide you with a better browsing experience. If you click on 'Accept' or continue browsing this site we consider that you accept our cookie policy. ACCEPT