Vol. 5 No.1
Balkan Journal of Interdisciplinary Research
IIPCCL Publishing, Graz-Austria
Acces online at www.iipccl.org
The ﬁ nal section outlines the recommendations about the acquisition system of
citizenship in Switzerland.
A. Deﬁ nition of Citizenship
The interesson the citizenship is rooted in the reinvigoration of this concept
in wider political-philosophical debates on civil society, social cohesion, and
communitarianism3.Citizenship in a broad sense, although it remains something
of a contested concept4, refers to membership and participation in a community5;
additionally, it denotes both entitlements and responsibilities which a ach to the
citizens who belong to the said community6.Citizenship is a status, is the legal link
between a person and the state. It is o en understood as including political rights7.
Citizenship then, it is the culmination of incorporation into a society8. Bellamy has
identiﬁ ed rights, participation and solidarity as the key componentsof contemporary
citizenship9.The notion of European Union citizenship10, whichhas its own distinctive
features, complements (rather than replaces) national citizenship and is now formally
articulated in Articles 17–22 EC as inserted by the Treaty of Maastricht in 1992.Many
scholars in the migration and ethnic relations ﬁ eld have done in distinguishing
di erent citizenship models or regimes11. These authors have come up with three
types of citizenship regimes, each deﬁ ning a speciﬁ c institutional and discursive
se ing for political contention over migration and ethnic relations. The ﬁ rst regime,
labeled “ethnic” or “exclusive,” denies migrants and their descendants access to
the political community or at least makes such access very di cult by way of high
(institutional and cultural) barriers to naturalization. Germany is usually the typical
example for this model; other examples that are mentioned in the literature include
Austria, Switzerland, and Israel. The second type of regime, labeled “assimilationist”
or “republican,” and exempliﬁ ed by France or the old “melting pot” approach in the
United States, provides for easy access to citizenship, among other things through jus
soli acquisition at birth, but requires from migrants a high degree of assimilation in
3 Walzer, Michael. (1983). Spheres of Justice. New York: Basic Books, p. 98. Schlesinger, Arthur D. 1998.
The Disuniting of America: Reﬂ ections on a Multicultural Society. Rev. ed. New York: Norton, p. 56.
Steenbergen, Bart van, ed. (1994). The Condition of Citizenship. London: Sage, p.67.
4 Faist, T. (2001). ‘Social Citizenship in the European Union’, Journal of Common Market Studies 39:1, pg.
5 Marshall, T.H. (1950), Citizenship and Social Class, p. 78.
6 Kofman, E. (1995), ‘Citizenship for Some but not for Others: Spaces of Citizenship in Contemporary
Europe’, Political Geography 14:2, pg. 121–137.
7 Fleiner, Th. Misic, A, Töpperwien, N. (2012), Constitutional Law in Switzerland, p. 189.
8 Curries, S. (2008). Migration, Work and Citizenship in the Enlarged European Union, p. 45.
9 Bellamy, R. (2004), ‘Introduction: The Making of Modern Citizenship, p. 6.
10 Shaw, J. (1997). ‘The Many Pasts and Futures of Citizenship in the European Union’, European Law
Review 22:6, pg. 554–572. Shaw, J. (1998), ‘The Interpretation of European Union Citizenship’, Modern Law
Review 61:3, pg. 293–317.
11 Castles, Stephen, and Mark Miller. (1993),The Age of Migration: International Population Movements in
the Modern World. London: Macmillan. Kleger, Heinz, and Gianni DAmato. (1995), "Staatsbiirgerschaft und
Einbiirgerung—oder: Wer ist ein Burger? Ein Vergleich zwischen Deutschland, Frankreich, undder Schweiz."
Journal fur Sozialforschung 35, no. 3/4: 259—98 Smith, David M., and Maurice Blanc. (1996),"Citizenship,
Nationality, and EthnicMinorities in Three European Nations." International Journal of Urban and
Regional Research 20, no. 1: 66-82.Safran, William. (1997), "Citizenship and Nationality in Democratic
Systems:Approaches to Deﬁ ning and Acquiring Membership in the Political Community." International
Political Science Review 18, no. 3: 313-35.