The Albanian-American Relations under the American Optics during 1945

AuthorMarsel Nilaj
PositionUniversity of Shkoder
Vol. 1 No. 1
January 2017
European Journal of Economics, Law and Social Sciences
IIPCCL Publishing, Graz-Austria
ISSN 2519-1284
Acces online at
The Albanian-American Relations under the American Optics during 1945
PhD (C.) Marsel Nilaj
University of Shkoder
The United States of America, which played a very important role during World War II, were
seen from the European Nations as the lantern that would help into leading the continent
towards democratic peace. Like all the other European states, Albania as well had such a
hope. The communist regime which was implemented in Albania a er 1945 was oriented from
Yugoslavian communism in its rst years.
The relations between these two countries seemed cold, but it was America which wanted
to break the ice and was asking for the situation to change through the organization of free
and democratic elections, whereas Albania was looking for recognition of its communist
government. The presentation of a communist facade in front of the Americans and with the
change of the equilibrium, where Great Britain together with the Soviet Union recognized
the Albanian government, forced USA to withdraw their requests, with the most important
request, which consisted of free democratic elections. However, the Albanian people su ered
violence and oppression from a deformed Stalinist election system, which clearly broke the
social, economic and spiritual equilibrium of the Albanians.
Keywords: USA, Albania, Enver Hoxha, Communism, Diplomacy.
The Albanian territory was set free by the end of November 1944 from the last
German forces and was awaken under the communist government. The existing
political groups during the war, the nationalist wing as well as the collaborationists
were inexistent. The communists, who had contacts with the British, as well as the
Americans during the war, were formed as a party and recognized from communist
Yugoslavia. In front of the people they were presented as the only power by using
heroic propaganda.
The Balkan area had signi cant importance for the The United States of America
a er WWII, and as a result they were also entering in postwar political relations with
Albania. Since the beginning of January 1945, the State Department had started to set
up the group that would deal with contacts in Albania. The purpose of this group
was to overthrow the communist government discretely, since the US Government
had recognized Hoxha’s communist regime (FRUS, 1967, 1). Members of this group
were Joseph E. Jacobs, who was a foreign a air o cial in the political commi ee of
the United States. Harry Fultz was the economic consultant of the foreign a airs, as
well as Alexander C. Kirk the American ambassador in Italy and political consultant
of the Mediterranean powers in Italy. In a plan with seven points, Jacobs was given
the competence to supervise the situation in the country with the purpose of se ing
diplomatic relations between these two countries in the future. Likewise, he had to

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