The Impact of International Standards on Higher Education Institutions in Albania

AuthorVebina Resuli
Pages66-77
Vol. 1 No. 2
June, 2017
European Journal of Economics, Law and Social Sciences
IIPCCL Publishing, Graz-Austria
ISSN 2519-1284
Acces online at www.iipccl.org
66
The Impact of International Standards on Higher Education Institutions in
Albania
Vebina Resuli
Abstract
While Albania has in place the key structures of the education system, the past educational
legislation and reforms were not su cient to fully develop the institutions of higher education.
The a empts to establish premium-quality universities and research institutions were continued
with the New Law on Higher Education. However, the standards in higher education,
particularly in terms of scienti c research, are still not on a su ciently high level; the country
itself is facing serious social and economic challenges, and research programs are both small
in scope and regionally fragmented. Over the last decade, the vocabulary of marketing has
been applied to the eld of education; today, its scope includes several dimensions, all of them
aimed at a racting new students. The contemplated research focuses on the characteristics of a
new conceptual model that describes the application process for Albanian higher education in
regards to the theoretical framework that includes educational philosophy, social justice theory,
and educational governance. Namely, the main goals of the research are: to identify the role of
new laws and regulations in the higher education system; to explore the e ects of the application
system from the students’ point of view; to provide a comparative history of the educational
systems in other countries; and to compare and contrast the relevant literature.
Keywords: Albania, higher education, management, conceptual model, application.
Introduction
Education cannot be separated from the historical, political, and social conditions in
which it surfaced and in which it has been developed and institutionalized. Education
is necessary on a social level for increasing cultural and scienti c awareness and
capacity, for realizing the process of civilization, and ultimately for ensuring our
departure from primitivism. Education acts as a civilizing force in nations and has
been present in Albania since the time of the Illyrians.
Legislation on education and educational reforms were approved by the Albanian
Parliament on April 11, 1933. Under these reforms, schools emphasized a nationalist
spirit and aimed at having high pedagogical standards. Primary education was
compulsory and free for all citizens. The school had a national, governmental, and
secular nature. Private schools established in Albania were either nationalized or
closed. In 1935, this issue was brought before the International Courts, and the Court
of Hague judged the ruling as unfair. As a result, in 1936 the government allowed
some private cleric schools and minority schools to open.
In 1938, a new educational reform was approved, mainly designed and organized by
fascist Italy, which had long-term goals of laying the foundations for the occupation
of Albania. This reform limited the general secondary education, removing two of
the six upper secondary schools and establishing vocational schools. At rst, the

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