The proclamation of the Albanian monarchy in 1928 The issue of its recognition and the Italian support

AuthorAntoneta Hoxha
PositionUniversity of Tirana, Albania
Balkan Journal of Interdisciplinary Research
IIPCCL Publishing, Graz-Austria
ISSN 2410-759X
Acces online at
Vol. 5 No.2
September, 2019
The proclamation of the Albanian monarchy in 1928
The issue of its recognition and the Italian support
PhD (C.) Antoneta Hoxha
University of Tirana, Albania
In the late 1920’s, Ahmet Zog, who was the President of Albania since 1925, having strengthened
his internal position and secured the support of Italy and Mussolini, took the necessary
constitutional steps to change the regime from republic to monarchy. Thus, on September 1,
1928, Albania was proclaimed a kingdom headed by Ahmet Zog, who was called Zog I, King
of Albanians. This paper shall analyze how the kingdom was recognized by the Great Powers
and the lobbying of Italy to its support. As per above, the focus is shi ed on the role of Italy, its
custodian style, in the international recognition of the new regime, clearly stated in all reports
of the Italian Ministry of Foreign A airs. The Italians were the rst to recognize the Albanian
kingdom, giving the occasional greetings to the new Albanian king. The same kind of a itude
towards the new monarchy was maintained also by the Italian pro-government press.
England and France were initially reserved to the new regime, but a er the recognition from
USA, English and French followed it. As for the Balkan states, Yugoslavia was the one that
initially opposed the recognition of the new government because of Zog’s title of “King of
Albanians”, which contradicted not only its geopolitical interests in the region, but it was also
interpreted as an irredentist policy towards Albanian minorities in Yugoslavia. Some circles
even saw the title as a provocation of Italian-Albanian policy against Yugoslavia.
While the Albanian kingdom was recognized by many states, the Turkish government
of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk refused to recognize it, despite Italy’s interventions through its
ambassador to Turkey. Nevertheless, the majority of states recognized the Albanian kingdom
and Zog as its king, and he continued to rule as such until April 1939.
Keywords: international relationships, agreements, politics, bilateral relationships, foreign
Ahmet Zog, Albania’s President, having consolidated his power and con rmed Italy’s
support in 1928, decided to make a signi cant constitutional change. On September
1, 1928, the Constitutional Assembly unanimously decided that “the bright crown of
the historic throne of Albania was o ered to the Savior of the Nation under the name
of Zog I, King of Albanians”. Zog accepted the crown during a short ceremony, which
was followed by three days of celebrations. Under the new constitution, Albania
was declared a “democratic, parliamentary and hereditary kingdom”, independent,
without o cial religions and Tirana capital of the country.1 The proclamation of
the monarchy marked the change of regime in Albania from republic to monarchy.
This important event in the country’s political life had to be followed by the act
of recognition by other states, which of course had already been informed of this
1 Bernd J. Fischer, Dictators of the Balkans, Tirana: AIIS, 2008, page (hereinafter, p) 44; Kastriot Dervishi,
History of the Albanian State 1912-2005, Tirana: "55", 2006, p. 279.

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