The Role of Intelligence in Democratic States and Domestic Security

AuthorBesnik Lokaj - Fisnik Sadiku - Armend Halimi
PositionSecurity Studies, South East European University - Security Studies, South East European University - Lecturer at FAMA College
ISSN 2410-759X
Acces online at
Balkan Journal of Interdisciplinary Research
IIPCCL Publishing, Tirana-Albania Vol. 1 No. 3
January 2016
The Role of Intelligence in Democratic States and Domestic Security
Besnik Lokaj
Security Studies, South East European University
Fisnik Sadiku
Security Studies, South East European University
Armend Halimi
Lecturer at FAMA College
Intelligence plays a vital role in national security, particularly in a democratic countries
and their domestic security. Otherwise, intelligence is the first line of defense against
various threats to national security. This paper deals with various definitions of
intelligence and domestic security, and also making a dividing line between the structure
of intelligence agencies and police. In this paper we will examine the role that intelligence
agencies have in the democratic states and societies, and their domestic security. And a
very important factor in this regard is also the oversight and control of intelligence
agencies in democratic countries in political and administrative level, thus respecting
the fundamental human rights because citizens like any other public sector, expect
accountability, efficiency, professionalism, ethics and security from the state intelligence
sector. Also in some developed countries, the intelligence activities performed by the
police, who are also called “criminal intelligence”, are different from security intelligence
agencies. And to avoid this misunderstanding, we will examine this confusion, but also
without avoiding the purpose of this paper. Based on recommended scientific methods,
we will provide a clear picture for the reader, regarding the role of intelligence in
democratic states and domestic security.
Keywords: Intelligence, Domestic Security, Democratic State, Criminal Intelligence.
Historically, where a state was totalitarian, its leaders “knew how to rule with the
help of the secret police, but not with the secret ballot”. A domestic security
intelligence service in such a country was therefore a very important tool of the
government, aimed at repression and control of its own citizens (Vitkauskas, 1999,
In virtually all authoritarian regimes (including the former Soviet bloc), the
intelligence apparatus was a key means for maintaining power. In those countries
with military regimes, the intelligence services also came under direct military control.
In others, with communist or socialist governments, the intelligence apparatus
was a mix of military and civilian services. In both, however, the problems of reform
are similar. In established, modern democracies such as the United States and Great
Britain, national intelligence organizations exist for one primary purpose: to inform
and support foreign policy decision-makers. In theory, these full-service intelligence
organizations, both military and civilian, should function as information processing

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