What is lost and gained in translation

Author:Silvana Dervishi
Position:University of Tirana
Pages:71-75
SUMMARY

Once the principle that equality between two languages cannot exist is accepted, it becomes possible to approach the issue of what is lost and what is gained during the translation process. Again this shows the low status of the translation, as a lot of time must have been spent discussing what is lost during the transfer of a text from the source language to the translation language, while... (see full summary)

 
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Vo
l.
6
N
o
. 2
Jul
y
, 2020
ISS
N 2410-391
8
A
cces online at www.ii
p
ccl.or
g
71
A
cademic Journal o
f
Business,
A
dministration, Law and Social Sciences
II
PCCL Publishin
g
, Graz-
A
ustria
What is lost and gained in translatio
n
M
Sc. S
il
v
a
n
a
D
e
rv
i
s
hi
niversity o
Tirana
Abs
tr
ac
t
O
nce t
h
e
p
rinci
pl
e t
h
at e
q
ua
l
it
y
b
etween two
l
angua
g
e
s cannot exist is accepted, it
b
ecomes possible to approach the issue of what is lost and what is gained during the translation
p
rocess.
A
gain this shows the low status of the translation, as a lot of time must have been spent
d
iscussin
g
what is lost durin
g
the transfer of a text from the source lan
g
ua
g
e to the translation
l
anguage, while ignoring what can be gained, because the translator can o en enrich or clarify
the text in the Source Language, as a direct result of the translation process. Moreover, what is
o en seen as a “loss” from the context of the Source Language can be replaced in the context
o
f
the Translation Language, as occurs in Petrarch’s translations by White and Surrey
.
Ke
y
words
:
languages, equality, translation process, loss and gain
.
I
ntr
odu
ct
io
n
E
ugen Nida is a rich source o
f
in
f
ormation on the
p
roblems o
f
loss during translation,
e
s
p
eciall
y
f
or the di
culties encountered b
y
the translator when con
f
ronted with terms
o
r conce
p
ts in the Source Language, which do not exist in the Translation Language.
H
e cites the case o
f
the South Venezuelan language, where the translator has some
d
i
cult
y
nding satis
f
actor
y
terms instead o
f
E
nglish ones:
f
atigue, stealing, l
y
ing,
e
tc., but where terms
f
or good, ugl
y
, beauti
f
ul cover a ver
y
wide
eld o
f
di
erent
meanings.
A
s an exam
pl
e,
h
e
p
oints out t
h
at t
h
is
l
anguage
d
oes not corres
p
on
d
to
the dictatorial classi
cation o
f
“good” and “bad”, but the trictomic one, as
f
ollows
.
(
1
)
Good -The good includes desirable
f
ood, killing enemies, chewing drugs to keep calm,
b
eating one’s spouse to teach one to obey, and stealing
f
rom anyone who does not belong to
t
he same
g
an
g.
(
2
)
B
a
d -
E
vil includes ro en
f
ruit, an
y
object with a cane, the murder o
f
a member o
f
the same gang, the the
b
y
a member o
f
the honorable
f
amil
y
, and the dece
p
tion o
f
a
n
yo
n
e
.
(
3
)
V
iolatin
g
taboo - Violation o
f
the taboo includes incest, a
pp
roaching the mother-in
-
l
aw, eating the ta
p
ir b
y
a married woman be
f
ore the birth o
f
the
rst child, and eating
ro
d
ents
by
t
h
e c
h
i
ld
ren.
I
t is also not necessar
y
to look
f
ar be
y
ond
E
uro
p
e to
nd exam
p
les that carr
y
such a
d
i
erentiation. The large number o
f
terms in Finland
f
or snow variations, in
A
rabic
f
or as
p
ects o
f
camel behavior, in
E
nglish
f
or light and water, in French
f
or the t
yp
es
of
bread the translator has to deal with, and this, on a
p
lane, constitutes a
p
roblem
of
untranslatabilit
y
. Translations o
f
the Bible have documented other additional
d
i
culties, such as the conce
p
t o
f
the Trinit
y
or the social signi
cance o
f
p
arables in
c
ertain cultures.
I
n addition to lexical
p
roblems, there are de
nitel
y
languages that do
n
ot have a time s
y
stem or conce
p
ts o
f
the time, which can match one wa
y
or another

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