A criminological overview on Albanian criminal law and aspects of corruption during World War II

AuthorMarbona Cuka
PositionCouncil of Ministers, Albania
Vol. 1 No. 1
January 2017
European Journal of Economics, Law and Social Sciences
IIPCCL Publishing, Graz-Austria
ISSN 2519-1284
Acces online at www.iipccl.org
A criminological overview on Albanian criminal law and aspects of corrup-
tion during World War II
Marbona Cuka
Council of Ministers, Albania
Main subject of this manuscript will be the historical development of the Albanian legislation,
judicial and legal system in the period of 1939-1945, period which in Albania continues to
present a vital part of the cultural and political landscape of the twenty- rst century. Some of
the issues addressed in this paper are:
Historical developments that dictate and guide the development of criminal norms, legal and
judicial system in the period of 1939 -1945, National Anti-Fascist Liberation Council as the
primary body that made laws during this period, Special Military Court, prison system, etc.
Legal and judicial system during the period of 1939-1945 was created and acted under the
in uence of aggressive invaders` policies and in accordance with the interests of the Anti-
Fascist National Liberation War. The la er protected the people's struggle against foreign
invaders, but at the same time re ected the extremist policy of the Communist Party in the
aspect of de ning political crimes, o en succeeded by harsh and unfair sentences. However,
other criminal rates of a political character contributed to the important ght against
criminality. Prison system was characterized by corruption in terms of the way they operated.
A er pu ing in place the regime of the National Liberation Forces, military courts were the
only functional courts for several months. Practically, the authorities felt that all litigation had
some military importance, so they were under the jurisdiction of military courts.
For a reliable and complete view on the development of Albanian Criminal Law, as well as the
judicial and legal system in the period of 1939 -1945, the work in this paper was carried out
based on di erent historical documents as well as materials.
Keywords: pro-fascist crime rate(s), fascist crime rate(s), corruption, political crimes, special
military court.
Main topic of this manuscript is the development of Albanian legislation in the period
of 1939-1945. The reason for choosing particularly this period is because Albania,
even in the beginning of the new millennium, continues to be a ected by events and
issues of this period which coincides with World War II. "To understand Albanians
in the year 2000 and onwards, one should nd important to discover who they were
during the period of 1939-1945," writes Professor Bernd Fischer in one of his books.
In this manner, he wishes to highlight the importance of the creation of the image of
This manuscript aims to address criminal law through detection, analysis, comparison
and explanation in a scienti c manner, but also by going beyond the Albanian judicial
and legal system and by considering the in uence of historical circumstances of the

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