20 Recommendations

6Ethics of Connected and Automated Vehicles
Ensure that CAVs reduce physical
harm to persons.
To prove that CAVs achieve the anticipated road safety improvements, it
will be vital to establish an objective baseline and coherent metrics of road
safety that enable a fair assessment of CAVs’ performance relative to non-
CAVs and thereby publicly demonstrate CAVs’ societal benef‌it. This should be
accompanied by new methods for continuously monitoring CAV safety and for
improving their safety performance where possible.
Prevent unsafe use by inherently
safe design.
In line with the idea of a human-centric AI, the user perspective should be
put centre-stage in the design of CAVs. It is vital that the design of interfaces
and user experiences in CAVs takes account of known patterns of use by CAV
users, including deliberate or inadvertent misuse, as well as tendencies toward
inattention, fatigue and cognitive over/under-load.
Def‌ine clear standards for
responsible open road testing.
In line with the principles of non-malef‌icence, dignity and justice, the life of road
users should not be put in danger in the process of experimenting with new
technologies. New facilities and stepwise testing methods should be devised
to promote innovation without putting road users’ safety at risk.
Consider revision of traf‌f‌ic rules to
promote safety of CAVs and investigate
exceptions to non-compliance with
existing rules by CAVs.
Traf‌f‌ic rules are a means to road safety, not an end in themselves. Accordingly,
the introduction of CAVs requires a careful consideration of the circumstances
under which: (a) traf‌f‌ic rules should be changed; (b) CAVs should be allowed
to not comply with a traf‌f‌ic rule; or (c) CAVs should hand over control so that
a human can make the decision to not comply with a traf‌f‌ic rule.

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