Compliance and enforcement aspects (horizontal provisions of all directives)

AuthorVesna Simovic-Zvicer
11 Compliance and enforcement aspects (horizontal provisions of all
11.1 General (legal) context
11.1.1 Surveys and reports about the particular difficulties related to obtaining legal
There are no surveys available.
11.1.2 Other issues related to the pursuit of a discrimination claim
The Montenegrin environment is predominantly patriarchal, with a culture that highly
values domination and power. Stereotypes of gender roles, the patriarchal model of gender
relations, economic and social crisis and poverty create a favo urable climate for domestic
violence against women and children. Women usually do not talk about violence and
endure it because of caring for children, lack of awareness of their rights and protection
possibilities, the isolation and control mechanisms that the perpetrator subjects them to,
feelings of guilt imposed by the patriarchal environment, material dependence, feelings of
shame, lack of self-confidence, lack of support and similar reasons. Myths and beliefs that
are present in Monten egrin society contribute to minimising the problem o f d omestic
violence. This climate also impedes the enforcement of sex discrimination claims.
11.1.3 Political and societal debate and pending legislative proposals
There is no relevant debate.
11.2 Victimisation
The provisions on vi ctimisation have been implemented in Montenegrin legislation.
Although the term ‘victimisation’ is not used either in the LPD or in the LGE, both legal
acts contain the relevant provision.
Article 4 of the LPD reads:
‘No person may suffer detrimental consequences as a result of reporting cases of
discrimination, testifying before the competent authorities or offering evidence in the
proceedings in an examined case of discrimination.
Those persons are protected from any detrimental treatment or consequences as a
reaction to a complaint or proceedings conducted because of a violation of th e
principle of non-discrimination.’
Article 6 of the LGE states:
‘No person may suffer detrimental consequences as a result of filing a complain t of
discrimination or providing testimony thereof, alerting the public to discrimination
based on sex or providing any other form of support to the proceedings conducted
on discrimination on that basis.’
So far, those provisions have not been interpreted in any relevant case law. Unfortunately,
there are many law enforcement officers who are ignorant of the notion of victimisation.90
90 Research interviews undertaken in the first three months of 2016 by the author of this report.

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