Internal protection alternative

AuthorEuropean Asylum Support Office (EU body or agency)
Guidance note | Iraq
January 2021
Internal protection alternative
IPA should only be examined after it has been established that the a pplicant has a well-founded fear
of persecution or faces a real risk of serious harm and that the authorities or other relevant actors of
protection are unable or unwilling to protect him or her in the home area. In such cases, if IPA
applies, it can be determined that the applicant is not in need of internat ional protection.
The required elements in order to apply Article 8 QD are:
Figure 5. Internal protection alternative: elements of the assessment.
In relation to these elements, when assessing the applicability of IPA, the case officer should
consider the general situation in the respective part of Iraq, as well as the individual circumstances
of the applicant. The burden of proof lies with the determining authority, while the applicant
remains under an obligation to cooperate. The applicant is also entitled to submit elements to
indicate that IPA should not be applied to him or her.
Part of the country
The guidance regarding IPA focuses on the three cities of Baghdad, Basrah and Erbil. The selection of
the three cities for this joint assessment does not prevent case officers from considering the
application of IPA to other areas of Iraq, provided that all criteria are met.
The ethno-religious background of the person and the region they o riginate from should be taken
into account. In general:
For individuals of Kurdish ethnicity IPA would be considered in KRI.
For Arab applicants, IPA would be assessed with regard to other parts of Iraq.
In the case of ethno-religious minorities, IPA should primarily be assessed with regard to the
region where their communities are concentrated.
When choosing a particular part of Iraq with regard to which to examine the applicability of IPA,
where relevant, existing ties with the place, such as previous experience and/or availability of a
support network could, for example, be take n into account.
IPA in a
part of
travel and
to settle

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