Appendix B. Data Analysis Methods

Author:G. Arévalo Nieto/E. Fernández Vicente/J.A. Messía de la Cerda Ballesteros/J.A. Rubio Blanco
Pages:225-245
 
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In this appendix, we provide some basic data analysis for the TCI data obtained from the UNPAN reports to get additional insight on telecom infrastructure development within the EU.

The boxplots reflect that Sweden has a much larger online population, whereas Cyprus is far behind as far as TVs are concerned.

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We now perform a simple PCA, the first two principal components providing 80% of the variability.

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The biplot based on the first two components provides a suggestive picture separating countries as far telecom infrastructure is concerned

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Loadings:

Comp.1 Comp.2

PC -0.457

Internet -0.466

Telephone -0.436 -0.254

Online -0.444

Mobile -0.362 -0.277

TV -0.235 0.923

The first may be viewed as an average, and consequently, as it explains a lot of the variance, may be seen as a TCI. The second one may be seen as a differential between TV and telephony (both fixed and mobile).

We repeat the analyses removing the variable referring to TVs

Comp.1 Comp.2

PC -0.469 -0.284

Internet -0.443 -0.229

Telephone -0.423 0.139

Online -0.487 -0.351

Mobile -0.408 0.851

Now the second component refers to the difference between internet technology and mobile telephony.

The next biplot suggests that countries with average TCI have more developed telephone technology than Inet technologies.

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We could possibly reduce the variables to: (Pc, internet, Teleph and Online), (Mobile) and (TV)

Cluster analyses will help us in clustering countries according to TCI.

[SEE PDF ATTACHED]

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The three suggested clusters are:

1

Sweden Denmark Germany France Luxembourg Netherlands Austria Finland United Kingdom

2

Belgium Czech Republic Estonia Greece Spain Ireland

Italy Cyprus Malta Portugal Slovenia

3

Latvia Lithuania Hungary Poland Slovakia

The boxplots help us to understand the differences between these countries.

[SEE PDF ATTACHED]

This is highly confirmed by a K-means cluster approach

1

Belgium Czech Republic Estonia Greece Spain France Ireland

Italy Cyprus Malta Portugal Slovenia

2

Sweden Denmark Germany Luxembourg Netherlands Austria Finland United Kingdom

3

Latvia Lithuania Hungary Poland Slovakia

We therefore have three groups

Group 1 AVERAGE TCI

Group 2 HIGH TCI

Group 3 LOW TCI

[SEE PDF ATTACHED]

The boxplots are

[SEE PDF ATTACHED]

The ranking would be

Sweden 0.914

Denmark 0.844

Netherlands 0.724

GROUP 2: MOST DEVELOPED...

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