AuthorVasilis Karlos - Martin Larcher
The guidance drafted at the current document provides a methodology for securing buildings against intruders,
terrorists and other physical threats that try to intrude or gain access to a vulnerable asset. The focus is on the
introduction of concepts that are applicable to the design of building security and aim in protecting people and
property by enforcing a securi ty perimeter. An asset’s secured perimeter can be consider ed as the first line of
defence in a multi-layered protection scheme.
More specifically, the first chapter of the document is dedicated to providing a robust and usable risk
assessment process against terrorist threats. The proposed assessment approach is focused on buildings and
other built facilities that are considered the exposed asset and classify them in terms of potential impact and
probability of occurrence. The threat of terrorism is characterized by great uncertainties, so a full quantitative
assessment is impossible. Nevertheless, a first step is attempted in providing a semi-quantitative method, which
in combination with qualitative parts, may decrease the subjectivity of a risk analysis based solely on expert
The next chapter contains general principles and recommendations concerning the application of external blast
actions on structures and structural components and should be used in conjunction with the Eurocodes [EN1990,
2005] and [EN1991, 2001]. The provided load parameters are valid for close-in, intermediate-range and far-
range detonations. Explosions are extremely complex phenomena and are characterized by a great number of
uncertainties concerning the type, location and mass of the explosive device, the blast parameters, the
environmental conditions etc. Blast-resistant and protective design focus on techniques for limiting and
mitigating the damage after an explosive attack and increasing the chances of survival of the occupants. The
structure or structural component under attack should still be able to fulfil their original design purpose, as with
the applied design approaches the loading is reduced to acceptable levels. For adopting these design
approaches, the calculation of the blast loading parameters to be inserted in the analysis is a prerequisite. Since
a procedure for estimating these parameters is missing in the Eurocodes, the recommendations that comprise
the current guide attempt to fill this gap, along with suggestions on mitigation measures.
Subsequently, advice regarding the protection from attacks that use vehicles to breach the security perimeter
of a facility is provided. A growing number of vehicle ramming attacks have been recorded in the last years,
showing a tendency in using vehicles as a weapon to target the public or gaining access to sensitive facilities.
The popularity of such attacks is attributed to their easy planning, the direct accessibility to a variety of vehicles
and the minimal required expertise. A structured approach is proposed in selecting, installing and using vehicle
protective security barriers, that guarantees the adoption of tailor-made measures instead of ‘one-size-fits-all’
A chapter als o sheds light to key issues and possibilities that are provided by the proliferation of new digital
technologies. A synthesis of the most recent and efficient digital security systems that can be integrated to
setting up and maintaining a building security perimeter is provided. The decisive role of the installed software
in taking full advantage of the capabilities of the installed system is underlined, as well as the challenges faced
in the harmonic cooperation when multiple security systems are employed.
The last chapter is dedicated to the malicious use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), a relatively new security
threat for sensitive buildings. Weaponised UAS have already been used by terrorist groups outside Europe and
there is a rising concern that similar tactics may be used for targeting infrastructures and public events. This
risk becomes greater as the number, payload, operating range and speed of commercially available UAS is
rapidly increasing, while their cost is decreasing. Up to now protecting a sensitive building from a terrorist attack
or other forms of intrusi on, comprised of setting up a physical security perimeter, access control systems and
adopt an engineering design capable of mitigating mainly ground attacks. The fast increase of the worldwide
number of UAS and their simple and remote piloting capabilities clearly demonstrates the need to be considered
during the establishment of a holistic building security scheme.

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